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A Primer the U.S. Manned Space Flight Program

A Primer the U.S. Manned Space Flight Program

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Published by Bob Andrepont

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Published by: Bob Andrepont on Jun 24, 2011
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06/24/2011

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3.
/.I
April
14,
1969
LAPRIMER
THE
U.
S.
MANNED
SPACE FLIGHT PROGRAMMercury Gemwi
J
SATURN
HISTORY
DOCUMENT
University
of
Alsbarna
Reseoxh
Institute
History
of
Science
&
Technolqiy Group
CONTENTS,
Date
----------
Doc. No.
------,,
W.EXPIX)RE
THE
MOON?--------------------------------------1-2
APOL;U) HISTORICAL
SU~Y-------------------------~--------~-~
APOLIX) LUNAR
LANDm-------------.--------------------------
7-8
ESTIMATED COSTS OF APOLLO PROGRAM--------------------------
9
APOLm PROGRAM FLIGHT
SUmRY-----------i------------------10-11
APOLI-J-J APPLICATIONS
PROGRAM--------------------------------^^-^^
LUNAR
DESCRIPTION-----------------------------'-------------14
LUNAR
LANDING
SITE
SE~CTION----------------------------~~-~~
APOLLO SPACECRAFT
DESCRIPTION----------------------------l8-28THE
SATURN
V
LAUNCH
WICLE--------------------------------
MANNED
FLIGHT TRACKING NETWORK----------------------------
29-32
APOLIX) FLIGHT CREWS----------------------------------------
33-3738-39
U,S.
MANNED
SPACE
FLIGHTS----------------------------.-----~O-42
Urnse
ASTRONAUTS--------------------------o----------------
ASTRONAUT
STAWS------------------------------------------
-43-44
45-47
1958
SPACE
ACT-----------------------------------------.-A~-~O
APOLm
MANAQEMENT-----------------------------o------------
APOLm
CONTRACTORS---------------------------------------
51-53
NASA ORGANIZATIONAL
CHART----------------------------------
$055
NASA
PUBLIC
AFFAIRS
DIRECTORY------------------------------
,
57-62'
SPACECRAFT CENTERS-------------------------------Kennedy
Space
Center,
Fla*---------l-------------------
-63
43-65
Manned
Spacecraft
Center,
ousto on--------:--------------66-67
Marshall
Space
Flight
Center,
A1a.----------------------
68-69
 
WHY
EXPLORE
THE
MOON?
.
(Excerpt from statement to Congress March
11,
1969 by
Dr.
George
E.
Mueller, NASAAssociate Administrator forManned Space
light)
Let us look
first
at
why lunar exploration
is
ofgreat importance to our nation. To the scientific world,there
is
great interest in the origin and history of theMoon and
its
relation to the Earth, and to the solar system.
Was
it
formed with the Earth, or captured later? Are thereclues to the origin of life? To quote the, President
'
s
Science Advisory Committee,"Answers to these questions mayprofoundly affect our views of the evolution of the solarsystem and
its
place,
as
well
as
man's, in the larger schemeof things."Many planets have moons, but ours
is
the largest inrelation to
its
planet, This implies that the two bodiesmay have been formed in the same manner
at
the same time.
If
true, the moon
may
be
a
book containing the secret ofthe earth's
first
billion years of life. This record
is
lost on the earth which
is
subjected to the wear and tearof erosion
by
atmosphere and water,
%ti1
now natural Ghenomena that can affect
man
couldbe studied only on
Earth.
Nowwe believe many things thathappen on Earth also happen on the Moon.
By
comparing
simi-
larities and contrasting differences, man may be able toarrive
at
a
greater understanding of the f'undamental processesthat affect the Earth; for example, the mechanisms that causeearthquakes and volcanic eruptions, and the processes respon-sible for concentrating ore deposits. The orbits of Apollo
8
and the Lunar Orbiters were disturbed by
mass
concentrationsbeneath the circular lunar seas. These may be hugh meteorsthat struck the Moon with such force that they melted and sankinto the interior, or they may be iron deposits.Another objective of lunar exploration
is
to learnabout man
as
a
space explorer--his capabilities and
limita-
tions. Some day man
will
move on to other planets;the Moon
is
a
training ground.
It
is
difficult to look
far
ahead. Wedon't have thebasic information which early lunar landings
will
furnishand we can only speculate today about the feasibility of theMoon
as
a
base for an observatory or
a
permanentscience
sta-
tion--about exploiting
its
environment of low gravity andhigh vacuum--about
its
potential for natural resources.
 
The eventual goal of
a
lunar base would bring intofocus the steps that must precede
it,
Just
as
Apollo wasimportant in establishing the objectives of Mercury, Gemini,Surveyor, and Orbiter. Critical to future considerations of
a
lunar base goal
is
information on the lunar environment,location of natural resources and strategic sites. that could
serve
multiple purposes.
A
long-range goal like the lunarbase would direct technological advances, stimulate publicinterest, and attain subsidiary obJectives with Earth applica-tion such
as
food synthesis, environmental control, and re--covery of useful elements from rock.To summarize the points
I
have
made,
through exploringthe Moon we hope to make fundamental advances in:
1.
Understanding dynamic processes on Earth throughdirect comparison of the Earth and Moon.
2.
Evaluating the natural resources of the Moon and
its
potential
as
a
base.
3.
Extending the potential of man to function as anexplorer on another planet;
4.
Understanding the solar system and
its
origin,including clues to the origin of
life.

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