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Unit 5 Physics Nuclear Decay Answers

Unit 5 Physics Nuclear Decay Answers

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05/01/2013

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1
1.
C
 
[1]
2.
(a) use of counter (+GM tube)determine background count in absence of sourceplace source
close
to detector and:place sheet of paper between source and counter (or increase distancefrom source 3-7 cm of air) reduces count to background 4(b) alpha radiation only has range of 5 cm in air / wouldn’t get through casing
(1)
1
[5]
3.
(a) 19 protons identified
(1)
calculation of mass defect
(1)
Conversion to kg
(1)
use of E = mc2
(1)
divide by 40
(1)
= 1.37 × 10
–12
J
(1)
[eg 19 × 1.007276 = 19.138244 + 21 × 1.008665 = 40.320209 – 39.953548 =0.36666× 1.66 × 10
–27
= 6.087 × 10
–28
 × c
2
= 5.5 × 10
–11
  /40 = 1.37 × 10
–12
J] 6(b) cannot identify which atom/nucleus will be the next to decaycan estimate the fraction /probability that will decay in a given time / cannot state exactly how many atoms will decay in a set time 1(c) (i) conversion of half life to decay constant[eg
λ
= ln 2 / 1.3 × 10
9
= 5.3 × 10
–10
y
–1
] 1(ii) add both masses to find initial mass
(1)
use of N = N
o
e
λ
t
 
(1)
rearrange to make t subject
(1)
Answer = 4.2 × 10
9
years
(1)
(if 0.84 used instead of 0.94 3 max)[eg total initial mass 0.94t = ln 0.1 / 0.94 / 5.3 × 10
–10
 = 4.2 × 10
9
] 4
[12]
 
4.
(a) Show that rate of decay of radium is about 7 × 10
13
BqAnswer [(7.1 – 7.2) × 10
13
(Bq)]
(1)
Power divided by alpha particle energy
(1)
 [Give 2 marks for reverse argument ie7 × 1013 Bq × 7.65 × 1013 J
(1)
(53.5 – 53.6) (W)
(1)
]Eg Rate of decay =J107.65W55
13
×
 = 7.19 × 1013 (Bq) 2(b) Show that decay constant is about 1.4 × 10
–11
s
–1
 
Use of λ =
1/2
T69.0
 
(1)
Answer [(1.35 – 1.36) × 10
–11
(s
–1
)]
(1)
 Eg
 λ
=s103.15years1620 69.0
7
××
 = 1.35 × 10
–11
(s
–1
) 2(c) The number of radium 226 nucleiAnswer [(5.0 – 5.4) × 10
24
]
(1)
Eg 7.19 × 10
13
Bq = 1.35 × 10
–11
s
–1
× NN = 5.33 × 10
24
2
Use of A = λN
(1)
 (d) The mass of radiumDivides number of radium 226 nuclei by 6.02 × 10
23
andmultiplies by 226
(1)
 Answer [1870 – 2040 g]Eg Mass of radium = 226 g ×
2324
1061033.5
××
 = 2008 g 2
 
(e) Why mass would produce more than 50 W
[9]
The (daughter) nuclei (radon) formed as a result of the decay of radium are themselves a source of (alpha)radiation / energy
(1)
 Also accept(having emitted alpha) the nucleus[allowsample/radium/atom] (maybe left excited andtherefore also) emits gammaAlso accept(daughter) nucle(us)(i) recoil releasing (thermal) energyDo not acceptNucleus may emit more than one alpha particleNucleus may also emit beta particle 1
5.
(a) Change in nuclear compositionNucleus has one less neutron OR nucleus has one more proton) 1(b) (i) Calculation of age of skullUse of 
 λ
= ln2/ 
½
 
to obtain value for λ 
 Use of N = N
o
e
 λt 
 
Correct answer for age of skull [1.2 × 10
4
y; 3.83 × 10
11
s]Example of calculation:
 λ
= ln 2/ 
½
= ln 2/5730 y = 1.2 × 10
–4
y
–1
[3.84 × 10
–12
s
–1
]ln(N/N
o
) = –
 λ
tln(2.3 × 10
–11
 /1.0 × 10
–10
) = –(1.2 × 10
–4
y
–1
)
t = 1.2 × 10
4
y
 Alternative mark scheme
Use of half life ruleCorrect answer for number of half lives [2.12]Correct answer for age of skull [1.2 × 10
4
y]Example of calculation:N/ N
o
= (0.5)n(2.3 × 10
–11
)/(1 × 10
–10
) = (0.5)nlog(0.23) = n log(0.5)n = log(0.23)/log(0.5) = 2.12t = 2.12 × 5730 = 1.2 × 10
4
y 3(ii) Reason for inaccuracyIdea that it is impossible to know the exact proportion of 
14
C in the atmosphere when the bones were formed ORreference to the difficulty of measuring such smallpercentages of 
14
C. 1

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