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## Find a book, put up your feet, stay awhile

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1

1.

C

[1]

2.

(a) use of counter (+GM tube)determine background count in absence of sourceplace source

close

to detector and:place sheet of paper between source and counter (or increase distancefrom source 3-7 cm of air) reduces count to background 4(b) alpha radiation only has range of 5 cm in air / wouldn’t get through casing

(1)

1

[5]

3.

(a) 19 protons identified

(1)

calculation of mass defect

(1)

Conversion to kg

(1)

use of E = mc2

(1)

divide by 40

(1)

= 1.37 × 10

–12

J

(1)

[eg 19 × 1.007276 = 19.138244 + 21 × 1.008665 = 40.320209 – 39.953548 =0.36666× 1.66 × 10

–27

= 6.087 × 10

–28

× c

2

= 5.5 × 10

–11

/40 = 1.37 × 10

–12

J] 6(b) cannot identify which atom/nucleus will be the next to decaycan estimate the fraction /probability that will decay in a given time / cannot state exactly how many atoms will decay in a set time 1(c) (i) conversion of half life to decay constant[eg

λ

= ln 2 / 1.3 × 10

9

= 5.3 × 10

–10

y

–1

] 1(ii) add both masses to find initial mass

(1)

use of N = N

o

e

–

λ

t

(1)

rearrange to make t subject

(1)

Answer = 4.2 × 10

9

years

(1)

(if 0.84 used instead of 0.94 3 max)[eg total initial mass 0.94t = ln 0.1 / 0.94 / 5.3 × 10

–10

= 4.2 × 10

9

] 4

[12]

2

4.

(a) Show that rate of decay of radium is about 7 × 10

13

BqAnswer [(7.1 – 7.2) × 10

13

(Bq)]

(1)

Power divided by alpha particle energy

(1)

[Give 2 marks for reverse argument ie7 × 1013 Bq × 7.65 × 1013 J

(1)

(53.5 – 53.6) (W)

(1)

]Eg Rate of decay =J107.65W55

13

−

×

= 7.19 × 1013 (Bq) 2(b) Show that decay constant is about 1.4 × 10

–11

s

–1

Use of λ =

1/2

T69.0

(1)

Answer [(1.35 – 1.36) × 10

–11

(s

–1

)]

(1)

Eg

λ

=s103.15years1620
69.0

7

××

= 1.35 × 10

–11

(s

–1

) 2(c) The number of radium 226 nucleiAnswer [(5.0 – 5.4) × 10

24

]

(1)

Eg 7.19 × 10

13

Bq = 1.35 × 10

–11

s

–1

× NN = 5.33 × 10

24

2

Use of A = λN

(1)

(d) The mass of radiumDivides number of radium 226 nuclei by 6.02 × 10

23

andmultiplies by 226

(1)

Answer [1870 – 2040 g]Eg Mass of radium = 226 g ×

2324

1061033.5

××

= 2008 g 2

3

(e) Why mass would produce more than 50 W

[9]

The (daughter) nuclei (radon) formed as a result of the decay of radium are themselves a source of (alpha)radiation / energy

(1)

Also accept(having emitted alpha) the nucleus[allowsample/radium/atom] (maybe left excited andtherefore also) emits gammaAlso accept(daughter) nucle(us)(i) recoil releasing (thermal) energyDo not acceptNucleus may emit more than one alpha particleNucleus may also emit beta particle 1

5.

(a) Change in nuclear composition• Nucleus has one less neutron OR nucleus has one more proton) 1(b) (i) Calculation of age of skull• Use of

λ

= ln2/

t

½

to obtain value for λ

• Use of N = N

o

e

–

λt

•

Correct answer for age of skull [1.2 × 10

4

y; 3.83 × 10

11

s]Example of calculation:

λ

= ln 2/

t

½

= ln 2/5730 y = 1.2 × 10

–4

y

–1

[3.84 × 10

–12

s

–1

]ln(N/N

o

) = –

λ

tln(2.3 × 10

–11

/1.0 × 10

–10

) = –(1.2 × 10

–4

y

–1

)

t

t = 1.2 × 10

4

y

Alternative mark scheme

• Use of half life rule• Correct answer for number of half lives [2.12]• Correct answer for age of skull [1.2 × 10

4

y]Example of calculation:N/ N

o

= (0.5)n(2.3 × 10

–11

)/(1 × 10

–10

) = (0.5)nlog(0.23) = n log(0.5)n = log(0.23)/log(0.5) = 2.12t = 2.12 × 5730 = 1.2 × 10

4

y 3(ii) Reason for inaccuracy• Idea that it is impossible to know the exact proportion of

14

C in the atmosphere when the bones were formed ORreference to the difficulty of measuring such smallpercentages of

14

C. 1

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