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Clep Chemistry Fact Sheet

Clep Chemistry Fact Sheet

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CLEP
®
Chemistry
… At a Glance
Description of the Examination
The Chemistry examination covers material that isusually taught in a one-year college course in generalchemistry. Understanding of the structure and statesof matter, reaction types, equations and stoichiometry,equilibrium, kinetics, thermodynamics, and descriptiveand experimental chemistry is required, as is the abilityto interpret and apply this material to new and unfamiliarproblems. During this examination, an online scienticcalculator function and a periodic table are available aspart of the testing software.The examination contains approximately 75 questionsto be answered in 90 minutes. Some of these are pretest questions that will not be scored.
Knowledge and Skills Required
Questions on the Chemistry examination requirecandidates to demonstrate one or more of the followingabilities.
Recall
— remember specic facts; demonstratestraightforward knowledge of information andfamiliarity with terminology
Application
— understand concepts andreformulate information into other equivalent terms;apply knowledge to unfamiliar and/or practicalsituations; use mathematics to solve chemistryproblems
Interpretation
— infer and deduce from dataavailable and integrate information to formconclusions; recognize unstated assumptionsThe subject matter of the Chemistry examination is drawnfrom the following topics. The percentages next to themain topics indicate the approximate percentage of examquestions on that topic.
20% Structure of Matter
Atomic theory and atomic structure
Evidence for the atomic theoryAtomic masses; determination by chemicaland physical meansAtomic number and mass number; isotopesand mass spectroscopyElectron energy levels: atomic spectra, quantumnumbers, atomic orbitalsPeriodic relationships, including, for example,atomic radii, ionization energies, electron afnities,oxidation states
Chemical bonding
Binding forces
Types: covalent, ionic, metallic, macromolecular(or network), dispersion, hydrogen bonding
Relationships to structure and to properties 
Polarity of bonds, electronegativitiesGeometry of molecules, ions and coordinationcomplexes: structural isomerism, dipole momentsof molecules, relation of properties to structureMolecular models
Valence bond theory; hybridization of orbitals,resonance, sigma and pi bonds
Other models, for example, molecular orbitalNuclear chemistry: nuclear equations, half-lives andradioactivity; chemical applications
19% States of Matter
Gases
Laws of ideal gases; equations of state foran ideal gasKinetic-molecular theory
Interpretation of ideal gas laws on the basisof this theory
The mole concept; Avogadro’s number
Dependence of kinetic energy of moleculeson temperature: Boltzmann distribution
Deviations from ideal gas laws
Liquids and solids
Liquids and solids from the kinetic molecularviewpoint Phase diagrams of one-component systemsChanges of state, critical phenomenaCrystal structure
 
CLEP
®
Chemistry (Continued)
Solutions
Types of solutions and factors affecting solubilityMethods of expressing concentrationColligative properties; for example, Raoult’s lawEffect of interionic attraction on colligativeproperties and solubility
12% Reaction Types
Formation and cleavage of covalent bonds
Acid-base reactions; concepts of Arrhenius,Brønsted-Lowry and Lewis; amphoterismReactions involving coordination complexes
Precipitation reactionsOxidation-reduction reactions
Oxidation numberThe role of the electron in oxidation-reductionElectrochemistry; electrolytic cells, standard half-cell potentials, prediction of the direction of redoxreactions, effect of concentration changes
10% Equations and Stoichiometry
Ionic and molecular species present in chemical systems;net-ionic equationsStoichiometry: mass and volume relations with emphasison the mole concept Balancing of equations, including those for redox reactions
7% Equilibrium
Concept of dynamic equilibrium, physical and chemical;LeChâtelier’s principle; equilibrium constants
Quantitative treatment
Equilibrium constants for gaseous reactions interms of both molar concentrations and partialpressure (K
c
, K
p
)Equilibrium constants for reactions in solutions
Constants for acids and bases; pK; pH
Solubility-product constants and their applicationto precipitation and the dissolution of slightlysoluble compounds
Constants for complex ions
Common ion effect; buffers
4% Kinetics
Concept of rate of reactionOrder of reaction and rate constant: their determinationfrom experimental dataEffect of temperature change on ratesEnergy of activation; the role of catalystsThe relationship between the rate-determining stepand a mechanism
5% Thermodynamics
State functionsFirst law: heat of formation; heat of reaction; change inenthalpy, Hess’s law; heat capacity; heats of vaporizationand fusionSecond law: free energy of formation; free energy of reaction; dependence of change in free energy on enthalpyand entropy changesRelationship of change in free energy to equilibriumconstants and electrode potentials
14% Descriptive Chemistry
The accumulation of certain specic facts of chemistryis essential to enable students to comprehend thedevelopment of principles and concepts, to demonstrateapplications of principles, to relate fact to theory andproperties to structure, and to develop an understanding of systematic nomenclature that facilitates communication.The following areas are normally included on theexamination:Chemical reactivity and products of chemicalreactionsRelationships in the periodic table: horizontal,vertical and diagonalChemistry of the main groups and transitionelements, including typical examples of eachOrganic chemistry, including such topics asfunctional groups and isomerism (may be treatedas a separate unit or as exemplary material inother areas, such as bonding)
 
CLEP
®
Chemistry (Continued)
9% Experimental Chemistry
Some experiments are based on laboratory experimentswidely performed in general chemistry and ask about the equipment used, observations made, calculationsperformed and interpretation of the results. The questionsare designed to provide a measure of understanding of thebasic tools of chemistry and their applications to simplechemical systems.
Study Resources
Most textbooks used in chemistry courses cover the topicsin the outline above, but the approaches to certain topicsand the emphases given to them may differ. To prepare forthe Chemistry exam, it is advisable to study one or morecollege textbooks, which can be found in most collegebookstores.A recent survey conducted by CLEP
®
found that thefollowing textbooks are among those used by collegefaculty who teach the equivalent course. Most of thesehave companion websites with practice test questions andother study resources. HINT: When selecting a textbook,check the table of contents against the Knowledge andSkills required for this test.
Chang and Overby,
General Chemistry: The Essential Concepts
(McGraw-Hill)Cracolice and Peters,
 Introductory Chemistry: An Active Learning Approach
(Brooks/Cole)Gilbert et al.,
Chemistry: The Science in Context 
(W.W. Norton)Goldberg,
Fundamentals of Chemistry 
(McGraw-Hill)Hill, Kolb and McCreary,
Chemistry for Changing Times
 (Prentice-Hall)Joesten et al.,
The World of Chemistry: Essentials
(Brooks/Cole)Kelter et al.,
Chemistry: A World of Choices
(McGraw-Hill)Moog and Farrell,
Chemistry: A Guided Inquiry 
(Wiley)Snyder,
The Extraordinary Chemistry of Ordinary Things
(Wiley)Zumdahl and DeCoste,
 Introductory Chemistry: A Foundation
 (Brooks/Cole)
 
In addition, the following resource, compiled by CLEP test development committee and staff members, may help youstudy for your exam. However, none of these sources aredesigned specically to provide preparation for a CLEPexam. The College Board has no control over their content and cannot vouch for accuracy:
Frostburg State University: General ChemistryOnline
http://antoine.frostburg.edu/chem/senese/101/index.shtmlVisit 
www.collegeboard.com/clepprep
for additionalChemistry resources. You can also nd suggestions forexam preparation in Chapter IV of the
CLEP Ofcial Study Guide
. In addition, many college faculty members post their course materials on their schools’ websites.
Sample Test Questions
The following sample questions do not appear on an actualCLEP examination. They are intended to give potentialtest-takers an indication of the format and difculty levelof the examination and to provide content for practice andreview. For more sample questions and info about the test,see the
CLEP Ofcial Study Guide
.
Note
: For all questions involving solutions and/or chemicalequations, assume that the system is in pure water and at room temperature unless otherwise stated.Questions 1–3 refer to reactions represented by thefollowing chemical equations.A. 2 KClO
3
(
 s
)
2 KCl(
 s
) + 3 O
2
(
)B. Zn(
 s
) + Cu
2
+(
aq 
)
Zn
2
+(
aq 
) + Cu(
 s
)C. Co
3
+(
aq 
) + 6 NH
3
(
aq 
)
[Co(NH
3
)
63
+](
aq 
)D. H
3
O+(
aq 
) + NH
3
(
aq 
)
H
2
O(
 l 
) + NH
4
+(
aq 
)E. 2 C
8
H
18
(
 l 
) + 25 O
2
(
)
16 CO
2
(
) +18 H
2
O(
)1. A Brønsted-Lowry acid-base reaction2. A decomposition reaction3. A combustion reaction4. The attractions between atoms within a moleculeof NH
3
are best characterized asA. hydrogen bondsB. ionic bondsC. polar covalent bondsD. London (dispersion) forcesE. ion-dipole forces

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