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Bird Diversity IISc Journal

Bird Diversity IISc Journal

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Published by: rameshbelagere on Jun 26, 2011
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12/15/2012

 
J.'l"dia"lnst.
Sci"
Nov.-D"C.2000.80,511-518.
©
Indian
Instituteof
Science
Birddiversityon
thecampus
oftheIndianInstituteofScience-Anevaluationoftwomethodsofestimation*
SURENDRAVARMA
AsianElephantResearchandConservationCentre,CentreforEcologicalSciences.IndianInstituteofScience(lISc).
B
angalore
5600
t
2,
India..email:varma@ces-iisc_emet.in;Phones:91-80-3092786,3600985,3460635;Fax:91-80-3601428,3602280.ReceivedonOctober25,1999.
A.bstract
Twomethods.namely,shortstriptransectcount(SSTC)andpointcount(PC).wereevaluatedtoselectarobustmethodofestimatingbirddiversityonthecampusoftheIndianInstituteofScience,a
man-made
ecosystem.Forbirdspecies/h(PC
=
6.7.SSTC
=
3.0)andthenumberofbirdslkm'/h(PC
=
184.7.SSTC
=
40.3),thePCmethod
encoun-
teredmorespeciesandindividualsinrelativelyshortertimeThemeannumberofsightingsandspeciesperminuie(sightings:PC
=
1.31,SEO.OS,SSTC
=
0..94SE
om,
species:PC
=
1.09,SE0.06andSSTC
=
0.67,SE0.03)werealsomoreinthePCmethodandthedifferencesareverysignificant(sightings:z
=
3_09,
P
<
.001andforspecies,z
=
5.4S.
P
<
.001).Speciesaccumulationcurve,richness,diversity
(H''"
1.98(PC)andJ.75
(SSTC»,
andevenne-ss
(E)
(0.6"10forPC,and0.50forSSTC)alsofavoured
the
PCmethod.Theseresultsindicate
that
thePCisanappropri-atemethodforestimatingbirddiversity.The
paper
alsodiscussesthepossibleecologicalreasonsforPCbeingarobustmethod.
r
··i
Keywords:Birddiversity,speciesrichness,birdcount
I.IntroductionMeasuresofdiversityarefrequentlyused
asIndicators
ofthewell-beingofecological
sys-
terns.'
Birds,beingmostdiversecommunitiesandrepresentingavarietyofhabitatniches,
are
potentiallyusefulasindicatorsofhabitatchangesandforotherconservation-orientedap-proaches.Understandingsuchdynamicpatternsofdiversityisdependentonthemethodsem-ployed.Ifthere
are
severalmethodstochoosefrom,itcansometimesbedifficulttodecideonthemostsuitablemethodofmeasuringdiversity.Here,twomethodsofmeasuringbirddiver-sityarecompared,andthedifferenceandinfluenceofthesemethodsonstudyingbirddiversityevaluatedinathicklywooded,ornithologicallywell-knownIndianInstituteofSciencecam-pus.Thiskindofstudymayalsohelp
in
devisingstrategiesforpreservingfloraandfaunafoundinman-made
ecosystems,
whichareequallyimportantasotherecosystems,for
conserv-
ingbiologicaldiversity.
2.Materialand
methods2.1.
Study
area
Thestudyarea,theIndianInstituteofScience'(IISc)campus,hasan
area
of180hectaresandwasprobablyanopenscrublandpriorto
its
establishment
in
the191Os.Theland-usepattern
*Thisworkandthepaperarede-dicatedtomywifePriyaSurendraVarma.
.
'
 
512SURENDRAVARMA
hasundergonesignificantchangesoverthepastseveralyears.Amajorchangehasbeentheincreaseintreecoveranddecreaseinareaunderscrubandopenland:Thecampushasanum-berofspeciesofavenuetrees,severalspeciesof
Cassia,Tabebuia
andgrovesof
Ficus.
Fruit-yieldingtreessuchas
Syzygium,Artocarpus,Anona
and
Muntungiacalabura
arefoundhere.Plantationsof
Acacia,
thorny
Acacia
and
Casurina,
densethicketsof
Lantana,
grasslandsandopengroundsalsoexist.Asmallareaofgrassymarshandpoolisthewetlandhabitathere.
2,3
Thesemicrohabitatsprovideidealhabitatsforavarietyofspecies.More
than
100speciesofbirdshavebeenrecordedonthecampus(Pers,Obs.).
2.2.Studymethod
Theobservationsofbirddiversitystudiesweremadebytwomethods:
(i)
Observerswalkedfor5mincontinuouslyandrecordedthebirdspeciesencounteredwhilewalkingand
(ii)
Observersstoppedfor2minandrecordedthebirdspecies.ThemethodsusedwiJlhenceforthbereferredtoasshort-striptransectcountseSSTC)forcontinuouswalkmethodandpointcounts(PC)forstopmethod.
In
theSSTCmethod,foreveryfivemin,anaveragedistanceof30mwascov-ered.Allbirdsseenwithin20m(10moneithersideofthetransect)beltwererecorded.To-tally,126five-minobservationsweremadeintheSSTCmethod.
In
thePCmethod,allbirdsseenwithina10mradiusofthestationaryobserverwererecordedand116werestopsmade.Informationsuchasthenameofthespecies,thenumberofindividuals,etc.wasrecordeddur-ingdatacollectioninboththemethods.Thegoodnetworkofroadsandman-madepathsinIIScwasusedforthisstudy.
All
sam-plingsweredonebetween0630and0830,and1600and1800hours.ThedatawerecollectedduringOctober-November1996.Therew:eretotallyeightobservers,dividedintofourgroupsoftwoindividualseach.Thestudyareawasdividedintofourdifferentblocks.Everyday,twoblockswereselectedfordatacollection.
2.3.Dataanalysis
Thedatawereanalysedseparatelyforboththemethods.Allthe126five-minobservationsoftheSSTCmethodwerepooledtogetherandspeciesencounteredperhourwerecalculated,
In
theSSTCmethod,theareacoveredwascalculatedbythewidthofthestripandthedistancecovered.Usingthis,thenumberofspeciesperhourper
lcm
2
wasobtained.
In
thePCmethod,a10mradiusof116observationswasconvertedinto
lcm
2
andthenumberofspeciesperhourperkm
2
wasobtained,Apartfromthis,allthe5and2
min
observationsofthe
SSTC
andPCmethods,respectively,werestandardizedintol-minobservations.Meansightingsandspeciesper1
min
andtheirstandarddeviation(SD)werecalculated.Differencesweretestedusingthez-test,Toidentifythemethod,whichgivesmaximumspeciesinrelativelyleasttime,weusedspeciesandsightingsperhour,per
lcm
2
andperminute.Asthesamplesizesofthesetwomethodswerenotequal,rarefactionmodelformeasuringspeciesrichnesswasused.Therarefactionmethodcalculatesthenumberofspeciesexpectedfromdifferentcommunities,
if
all
samplesizesarereducedtoastandardsize.'ProgramRAREFRAC.BAS
4
tocomputetherarefactioncurvesandasamplesizeof
n
=
500wereusedasstandard.Atthissamplesize,theSSTCandPCmethodswereratedintermsoftheirspeciesrichness.Thespeciesrichnesswascomparedbasedontimescaleforwhichspeciesaccumula-
.......::J
 
ESTIMATINGBIRDDIVERSITY513
tioncurvewasdeveloped.Thecumulativenumberofspeciesseenafterevery15minwasplot-tedandtherelationshipbetweentimeandspeciesencounteredwasidentifiedforthesetwomethods.SpeciesdiversityforthesetwomethodswascalculatedusingShannonindex.
It
wascalcu-latedfromtheequation
H'
=
-p,
In
Pi
where
H'
isdiversitymeasureandthequantity
Pi
istheproportionofindividualsfoundintheithspecies.Thettestwasusedtotest
if
thevaluesofdiversityindicesbythetwomethodsarestatisti-callysignificantlydifferentThevarianceindiversityofthetwomethodswascalculatedusingtheformula.
I
wherevar
H'
isitsvariance.Theformulausedforthettestis
t
where
H;
isthediversityofmethod1andvar
H;
isitsvariance.Thedegreeoffreedomwascalculatedusingtheformula
I
df
=.
(Var
H;
+
Var
H;
f
[(Var
H;fINJ+
[(Var
H;fI
NJ
where
N
isthenumberofindividuals.ToidentifyhowequallyabundantthespeciesmeasuredbytheSSTCandPCmethodsare,evennesswascalculatedusingthe
formula'
E=H'flnS
where
H'
isthediversityandSthenumberofspecies.3.
Results
Atotalof35species(Appendix
1)
wereobservedduringthestudyperiod.TableIsummarizestheresultsofthetotaltimespent,theareacovered,thenumberofspecies.thenumberofsight-ingsandthetotalnumberofbirdsseenforeachspeciesforbothSSTCandPCmethodsindividually.'ThoughthetimespentforthePCmethodwasrelativelylesserthanthatoftheSSTCmethod(4hcomparedtoSSTC's10h),thenumberofspeciesencounteredinthePCmethodwasmorethanthatofSSTC(6.7species/hforPCand3.0species/hforSSTC).The

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