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Population Count Direct&IndirectPaper

Population Count Direct&IndirectPaper

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Published by: rameshbelagere on Jun 26, 2011
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06/26/2011

 
l~:Aweekwithelephants.Eds.,.H~Datye,BombayNaturalHistoryandOxfordUniversityPress,New
339.(1995)
J.e.
DanielandSociety,BombayDelhi.Pp.331-
DIRECTANDINDIRECTMETHODSOFCOUNTINGELEPHANTS:ACOMPARISONOFRESULTSFROMMUDUMALAISANCTUARY
K.
SURENDRAVARMANUMARAMAKRISIINANAND
R.
SIlKIJMAR
I
(With
(j
text-figurer
Astudycomparingdcu-..tyestimatesofelephantsfromdirectamiindirect
(duug)
countswas
carried.vut
ill
MudumulaiWildlifeSanctuary
during
1~1J1-
1992.Linetransectmcthc,'asoutlinedbyBurnham
1:/
al.
(1980)fordirectcounts,andthedropping
count
methoddevelopedbyBarnesandJensen
(1IJR7)
forindirectcountwerefollowed.Thesanctunry
was
dividedintoseveral
ZOIl\':S
basedonlocationandhabitattype.l-ourpermanenttransectsof3-4killeachwerecut
Illl"
thedirectcountandwalkedtwice
eachmonth.
Forthe
indirect
count,transectsof
1-4
kmeachwere
cut
andenumeratedeachofthe
three
(dry,
I
wet,
II
wet)seasons.Experimentswereset
up
eachseasontoestimate
dung
decayrates,whiledefecationrateswereobtainedfromWatve(1992).Resultsobtainedbythetwomethodsarccompared.Theestimate
ofmean
density
[rolll
thedirectcountwashigher(3.09clcphants/sqkill,95%CI
=
1.40-4.711)thanthatobtainedbytheindirectCOUlIt(1.S·1clcphants/sqkill,95%CI
=
1.01-2.10).The
strengths
andweaknesses
of
bothmethods
arc
discussed.
iNTRODUCTION
Thelinetransectmethod(Burnham
ctal.
1980)
hasbeenextensivelyusedforestimatinganimaldensitiesforavarietyoftaxaandhabitats.Elephantsdensitieshavebeenestimatedusingthismethodeitherthroughdirectcounts(KnranthandSunquist
(992)
orindirectcounts(BarnesandJensen
1987,
Sale
etal.
1990,
DawsonandDekker
I()91)
Duringaworkshoponccnsusingelephantsinforests(Ramnkrishnan
ct
'1/.
(991),
theline
11
anscctmethodwas
recommended
<IS
the
mostrobust,wherevertrainedpersonnelarcavailable.Thedirectcountwastobeadoptedinareasofgoodvisibilityandhighelephantdensity,while
ill
areasoflowelephantdensity(asintropical
raill
forests)theindirect(dung)countwasrcconu-icndcdnsbeingthemostsuitable.Therehashoweverbeenno
compar
i-onmadeofestimatesfromthesetwomethodsinthesamehabitatover;hcsrunclimeperiod.Such
all
exercisewascarriedoutinMudumalaiWildlifeSanctuaryduring
1991-92
illordertocheekwhetherornotthe
two
methodsgavecomparableresults.
I
AsianEI..:ph:llllCouservation
Centre,
Centre
furEcologicalScicuccs,lndinulustitutc
"I'
Sciences,Baugulore-5(,0012.
Iudin,
 
332
AWEEKWITHELEPHANTS
STIJDYAREA
ThestudywasconductedinMudumalaiWildlifeSanctuary,Tamilnadu,southIndia(11°32'to11°43'N,76"22'to76°45'E)(Fig,1).Threeseasonscanbedefmed:
dry
(January-April),I
wet(May-August)and
n
wet(September-December).Adistinctrainfallgradientextendsfromwesttoeast,withacorrespondingchangeinvegetationtypefrommoistdeciduousforestthrough
dry
deciduousforestto
dry
thorn
forest(Sukumar
et
al.
1992).TheforestsofMudumaIaiWildlifeSanctuary(321sqkm),BandipurNationalPark(874sq
Ian),
WynadSanctuary(251sqkm),SigurplateauandthenorthernandeasternslopesoftheNilgiris(700sqkm)fonn
a
contiguouselephanthabitatwhichsupportsoneofthelargestelephantpopulations
in
Asia.
METHODS
ThebasiclinetransectmethodasoutlinedbyBurnham
etal.
(1980)wasused.Thestudyareawasdividedinto
7
zonesbasedontopographyandvegetationtype,Forthelinetransect
directcount,
fourpermanenttransectswere
cut
(Fig.
1),
whichranthroughdifferenthabitattypes.Thetotallengthofthetransectsineachof
the
habitattypeswasapproximatelyproportionaltotheareaofthathabitattype.
Each
transectwaswalkedtwiceamonth,oncebetween7.00hr.and9.00hrand
egain
between16.00hrand18.00he.Onobservingananimallherd,theperpendiculardistancefromtheanimal/centreoftheherdtothetransectlinewasnotedusingarangefinderalongwithgroupsize.Ifpossibletheageandsexofeachindividualwasnoted.
Statisticalanalysis;
Thedensityofgroupswas
arrived
atusingtheprogramTRANSECT(White1987).Dataweregroupedintodistanceclassesof20
m
intervalforanalysis;sightingsbeyond140mdistancewerenotused.Fourierseriesfunctionwasusedtoestimatethemeandensityofgroupsanditsstandarderror.Toestimatetheelephantdensity,thedensityofgroupswas
multiplied
by
themeangroupsize.Thestandarderror(SE)ofelephant.densitywasestimatedusingtheformula
(N,V.
Joshi,per.
comm.):
(SE(D»2
=
{(SE(y»1
x
(SE(Z»2)
+
{y2
x
(SE(ZW}
+
{Zzx
(SE(Y)i}whereD
=
densityofelephants;Z
=
densityofgroups;Y
=
meangroupsize.Forthelinetransectindirectcount(BarnesandJensen1987,DawsonandDekker1991),transectsof1~4
km
lengthwerecutafreshforeachcount(one-offtransect).Transectswerecutforeachofthe
three
seasons
(dry,r
wetandIIwet)andforthedifferenthabitattypes.Lengthof
 
MEI7l0DSOFCOUNTINGELEPHANTS
o
-0
:::
..,
-t
Z
:>-
c::
E
CIC
::J!II:
t-
ee
...
u
III
Z
~
e
I/)
CD
:1:
UJ
IL.
*of
:::J
a
...J
N
i
:3
0
'"
%
::J.
C
::J
%
333

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