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Beyond Faith and Isdentity Mobilizing Islamic Youth in Democratic Indonesia

Beyond Faith and Isdentity Mobilizing Islamic Youth in Democratic Indonesia

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This article was downloaded by:
[Thammasat University] 
22 June 2011
Access details:
Access Details: [subscription number 789376256] 
Informa Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK
The Pacific Review
Publication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information:http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/title~content=t713707111
Beyond faith and identity: mobilizing Islamic youth in a democraticIndonesia
Kikue Hamayotsu
Northern Illinois University,Online publication date: 20 May 2011
To cite this Article
Hamayotsu, Kikue(2011) 'Beyond faith and identity: mobilizing Islamic youth in a democraticIndonesia', The Pacific Review, 24: 2, 225 — 247
To link to this Article: DOI:
Full terms and conditions of use:http://www.informaworld.com/terms-and-conditions-of-access.pdfThis article may be used for research, teaching and private study purposes. Any substantial orsystematic reproduction, re-distribution, re-selling, loan or sub-licensing, systematic supply ordistribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden.The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contentswill be complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of any instructions, formulae and drug dosesshould be independently verified with primary sources. The publisher shall not be liable for any loss,actions, claims, proceedings, demand or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directlyor indirectly in connection with or arising out of the use of this material.
The Pacific Review
, Vol. 24 No. 2 2011: 225–247
Beyond faith and identity: mobilizingIslamic youth in a democratic Indonesia
 Kikue Hamayotsu
There is a prevailing assumption amongst scholars and observers of In-donesian politics that there is a close link between religious identity and politicalidentity. How valid is this socio-cultural identity model in explaining the party af-filiation and political allegiance of increasingly pious Muslim youth to a politicalorganization in the context of democratic consolidation? In particular, how validis this assumption with consideration to contemporary Indonesian politics? Thisarticle engages this debate through a careful analysis of the member recruitmentand mobilization of the most successful religious-based Islamist organization inpost-authoritarian Indonesia, the Prosperous Justice Party (PKS). The article com-bines two strands of social movement theory, resource mobilization and opportunitystructures, to argue that the PKS’s relative success in recruiting committed Muslimyouth is explained by two interrelated factors: (1) merit-based cadre recruitmentand promotion, which offers young, ambitious and religiously conscious Muslimyouth fair and institutionalized political career opportunities and thus incentives tocommit themselves to the party’s collective interests; and (2) the timing of organiza-tional expansion that coincided with a rapid increase of state office – both executiveand legislative – at the sub-national levels as a result of localized democratic elec-tions.
political Islam; democratization; Indonesia; religion and politics, PKS;religious parties; social movement.
To what extent does religious piety and identity shape political identity?To what extent does religious-based ascriptive identity condition affilia-tion and loyalty of supporters to a particular political organization? In the
Kikue Hamayotsu is an Assistant Professor of Political Science at Northern Illinois Univer-sity. The original version of this article was first presented at the American Political ScienceAssociation Annual Meeting in Toronto, 3–9 September 2009.Address: Department of Political Science, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115,USA. E-mail: khamayotsu@niu.edu
The Pacific Review
ISSN 0951-2748 print/ISSN 1470-1332 online
2011 Taylor & Francishttp://www.informaworld.com/journalsDOI: 10.1080/09512748.2011.560960
 D o w nl o ad ed  B y : [ Th a m m a s a t  U ni v e r si t y]  A t : 13 :17 22  J u n e 2011
The Pacific Review
literature of identity politics, scholars have sought to understand questionssuch as these. This article seeks to go somewhere along answering thesebroader theoretical questions regarding religion and politics through a care-ful analysis of a Muslim-dominant democracy, Indonesia.Among scholars and observers of Indonesian politics, there is a prevail-ingassumptionthattheremustbeacloselinkbetweenreligiousidentityandpolitical identity. This primordialist view was first popularized in the 1960swhen a prominent anthropologist, Clifford Geertz, introduced this concep-tual model founded on religious-based socio-cultural identity. Accordingto this identity category, the Muslim community in Java is broadly catego-rized into three types:
(nominal Muslim);
(pious Muslim);and
(the traditional aristocracy). The
is further divided intotwo categories: traditionalist (more syncretic) and modernist (more ortho-dox). These religious-social identities tend to correspond to political identi-ties and affiliation called
(current) (Geertz 1960). This socio-culturalclassification offered scholars a useful conceptual tool to explain party affil-iation and political and voting behaviors in Muslim communities (e.g., King1982; Samson 1968).Almost five decades later, this socio-cultural
model still signifi-cantly conditions analysis and research methods of a later generation of scholars (e.g., King 2003; Liddle and Mujani 2007; Turmudi 2004). It is ex-pected that the socio-religious categorization (either in terms of individualidentity or organizational affiliation) is readily translated into political cat-egory or affiliation. How valid is this socio-cultural identity model in ex-plaining party affiliation and loyalty of increasingly pious Muslim youth toa political organization in the context of democratic consolidation?This article seeks to engage this debate through a careful analysis of the member recruitment and mobilization of the most successful religious-based Islamist organization in a post-authoritarian Indonesia, the Prosper-ous Justice Party (
Partai Keadilan Sejahtera
), known as the PKS. Since itsinception in 1998, the PKS has managed to recruit a number of commit-ted Muslim youth to build the most dynamic religious-based national partyin Indonesia. The organizational expansion of the PKS poses an intriguingpuzzle because it has occurred against the backdrop of alleged declining po-liticalIslam(i.e.,decliningpopularityofreligious-basedpartiesandpoliticalinfluence of organized religions) and notoriously weakly-institutionalizedpolitical parties. This puzzle is even more intriguing if we consider broadersocio-economic transformations since the 1970s and Indonesia’s highlycompetitive and liberal religious and political market reinforced by them.Sustained economic growth and urbanization throughout the 1980s and1990s have brought about the Muslim urban middle class that is self-consciously and publicly religious. In the university campuses in cities andsuburban neighborhoods, various
(missionary) organizations andreligious study groups mushroomed to meet – and further promote – spiri-tual aspirations of the Muslim youth, especially students. The campus
movements including
Jemaah Tarbiyah
(the Education Movement)
 D o w nl o ad ed  B y : [ Th a m m a s a t  U ni v e r si t y]  A t : 13 :17 22  J u n e 2011

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