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BTS(C)-III-08-064-B
B.TechDegreeIIISemesterExamination,November2008
IT/CS
303DISCRETECOMPUTATIONALSTRUCTURES
(2006
Scheme)
Time:3HoursMaximumMarks:100
PARTA
FIVE
marks)
I.
(a)(8
x
5
=
40)UsingMathematicalInduction,verifythattheequationistrueforeverypositiveinteger
n.
1111
n
1.3+3.5+
5.7
+......
+
(2n-I)(2n+
1)
=
2n
+
1.
(b)Letfbeafunctionfrom
X
=
{O,I,2,3,4}
to
X
definedby
f(x}=4x
mod5
Writejasasetoforderedpairsanddrawthearrowdiagram
off
Isjonetooneoronto?(c)Explainrecursivealgorithmswithanexample.
.II
(d)UsetheBinomialTheoremtoshowthat
L
2k
c(
n,
k)
=
3".
k=O
(e)ExplainHamiltoniancycles.ShowthatthegraphgivenbelowdoesnotcontainaHamiltoniancycle.(f)DecidewhetherthegraphhasanEulercycle.Ifthegraphhasone,exhibitone.
b
fl,
f
c..
Cj~
"k·
(g)Considertheset
A
=
{k,I,
m,n,
p}
andthecorrespondingrelation.
R
={(
k,k),(/,/),(
m.m).(n,n
)(p,p).(
k
.m),(
k./),
(k,n),(k,p),(m.n),(m,p),(n,p),(l,p)}
ConstructthedirectedgraphandcorrespondingHassediagramofthispartialorder.(h)Let
(A,
*)
beasemigroup.Forevery
a
and
b
inA,if
a;t:
b
then
a
*
b
*-
b
*
a
and
a=a=a.
(a)Showthatforevery
a,
b
in
A
a
*
b
*
a
=
a
(b)Showthatforevery
a,
b,
c
in
A
a
*
b
*
c::::
*
c.
(TumOver)

II.(e)Ill.(a)(b)IV.(a)(b)
V.
(a)VI.(b)(c)(a)(b)2
",I
PARTB
(a)(b)(4
x
15'"60)
--.---
If
p,q
and
r
aretrue,findthetruthvalueoftheproposition
(p
V
q)/\P/\
r
V
q.
(3)Determinewhethertherelationdefmedonthesetofpositiveintegersisreflexive,symmetric,antisymmetric,transitiveand/orapartialorder(i)
(x,y)
E
R
if
2
divides
x+
y
(ii)
(x,y)
E
Rif3
divides
X+
y.
(4)Let
R
betherelationonthesetofeight-bitstringsbys.Rs,providedthat
51
and
S2
R
is
an
equivalencerelation
(ii)
How
many
equivalenceclassesarethere?
(iii)
Listonememberofeachequivalenceclass.
OR
(8)StateandprovethegeneralizedDeMorgan'slawsforlogic.ConsiderA
=
B
=
C
=
Randlet
f:
A
-)0
Band
g:
B
-)0
C
be
definedby
f(
)
=
X
+
9
and
g
(y)
=
y2
+
3.
Findthefollowingcompositionfunctions.
(i)
fof(a)
(ii)
gog(a)
(iii)
fog(b)
(iv)
gof(b)
(v)
gof(
4)
(vi)
fog(
-4).
(9)(6)
OR
Differentiatebetweenanalysisandcomplexityofalgorithms.Explainthedifferentnotationsforrepresentingcomplexity.Findthecomplexityof
2n
+
3log,
n.
OR
Solvetherecurrencerelation
an
=
-8a
n_
1
-16a
n_
2
subjecttoinitialconditions
ao
=
2,
a
1
=
-20.
StatethePigeonHolePrinciple.Twofairdicearerolled.Findtheprobabilityofgettingdoublesorthesumof
5.
(10)(5)(7)(5)(3)Findthelengthoftheshortestpathandashortestpathbetweeneachpairofverticesintheweightedgraph.
b
:G
h
Q.·D·"
I
(i)a,f(,(ii)
bj
J
Drawtheundirectedgraphrepresentedbyincidencematrix
Ml
asshownbelow.(10)ele2e3e4ese6
a
01001
1
b
01
1
01
0
c
000101
d
1
00
00
0
(5)
e
1
001
0
0
OR
(Contd..
.3)

VII.(a)(b)VIII.(a)IX.
3
FindaminimalspanningtreeusingPrism'salgorithm.
0---
3.b
-4
c..
(10)
10:
~
4-
4-
.
,~,
~
3
Findaspanninttreefor~egrap~.
!Z
..Q,_
0....
>.
1:1".
c,_'.';'"
q(.
o~
_.lX1><I/
.~k'
.t
L..
1....
Determinewhetherth~Dosets
shown
belowarelatticesornot.
~r·
1
M
(5)
..
,
..
,
(i)
(ii)
b
c
2
3
(iii)(10)
<1>;(.'.:.
.
aL..'
b~
iv)(b)
-\,
Considertheset
A
=
{1,2,5,lO,25,50}
andtherelationdivides
(I)
beapartialorderingrelationon
A.
(i)DrawtheHassediagramofAwithrelationdivides.(ii)Determineallupperboundsof5&10(iii)Determinealllowerboundsof5
&
10.
OR
(5)Consider
an
algebraicsystem
(Q,
*)
where
Q
isthesetofrationalnumbersand
*
isabinaryoperationdefmedby
a
*
b
=
a
+
b-ab
¥
a,b
E
Q.
Determinewhether
I
(Q,
*)
isagroup..(7)(b)Let
A
={
a,
b}.
WhichofthefollowingtablesdefineasemigrouponA?Which(a)ofthemdefmeamonoidonA?
(i)
*
ababb
.
b
a
a
(ii)
*
a
ba
ab
bbb
11<
(8)
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