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Women Empowerment Final

Women Empowerment Final

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Published by: kaif0331 on Jun 27, 2011
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  WOMEN EMPOWERMENTINTRODUCTIONSince the creation of Pakistan in 1947 Pakistan inherited the menace of poverty. The burden of this poverty was put heavily on the female population which is 50% of the total population of Pakistan. ON the top of it, women were neglected and under-nourished. All the governmentshadtried in one form or the other to develop the women but could not make a very happy progress because of various reasons. Today the present government is committed and believes increating,an enabling environment for people in general to enjoy long, healthy and creative life and for women in particular. Economic development, if it is to be meaningful and sustainable, mustinvolve and accrue to all citizens. At the same time economic growth alone cannot guaranteesocial harmony, especially in an under developed societies. National development must be balanced by a strong and real emphasis on equitable distribution of development benefitsespecially for the lower segments of the population. This philosophy of development i.e., growth with equity is to be embodied in all national development policies. Poverty alleviation and socialdevelopment has to be the central part of the overall national development. In the developing world, the menace of poverty is deep routed, especially in the ruralareas while Pakistan is no exception to it. Therefore the United Nations identified the rural women as a catalyst for change if the objective of eradicating poverty is to be attained. Invisibleand industrious, neglected and under nourished, She is the pivot on which the rural householdfunctions. She is the major contributor to the agricultural labour force producing more than50%of the developing world¶s food. She is the one who tend sows, reaps, gather crops, cares foranimals, plants herbs, and looks after the families but hardly ever recognized in the statistics of production while easily made a target of cultural malpractices which not only hurts her dignity  but even take her life. It is very important to bring the women into the lime light so that policy 
makers could design their development interventions in a way that could politically andfinancially empower her enough to make a difference in the living conditions of herself and herfamily and her immediate surroundings. At the same time giving her the personal security anddignity that is her fundamental right.DEFINITION.The term women right refers to freedoms and entitlements of women and girls of all ages. Theserights may or may not be institutionalized«DEFINATION OF EMPOWERMENTThe word empowerment is not new, having arisen in the mid 17
century with the legalisticmeaning ³To invest with authority´ The most common use of the term empowerment refers toincreasing the low ±power group, so that it more nearly equals the power of high group.DEFINATION OF WOMEN EMPOWERMENT³Women empowerment is to think of your own progress without relying on a man¶s idea´LITERATURE REVIEW  Women empowerment is an important useful concept in the development of a community as itrepresents women as active agents rather than passive recipients of development policies.35countries conclude that if women are provided access to education, employment and health thenthey have more control and power over household decision making, improved child well-being,income, reduced fertility rates and increased resources.
 According to the Samina Malik(2003) and Kathy Courtnay(2003
) that increases theparticipation of woman in higher education. They think that education in general and highereducation in particular is recognized as an instrument for social change .The study hashighlighted the role that text book play in perpetuating gender inequalities.
Education'simportance has been emphasized by a number of international conventions, including theUniversal Declaration of Human Rights and the Programme of Action of the 1994 InternationalConference on Population and Development.
The Fourth World Conference on Women, held inBeijing in 1995, recognized that women's literacy is key to empowering women's participation indecisionmaking in society and to improving families' well-being.
In addition, the UnitedNations has articulated the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which include goals forimproved education, gender equality, and women's empowerment (see Box 1 at end of article).The MDGs emphasize education's essential role in building democratic societies and creating afoundation for sustained economic growth. 
 According to Bandure(1996)and pajiors(1996)
changes in personal factors such as self efficiency, society,family can good impact on women empowermen.If family and society support women they can get butter awareness about their rights. : Economic participation and decision-
making (measured by the percentage of female administrators and managers, and professionaland technical employees), and political participation and decision-making (measured by thepercentage of seats in parliament held by women). For our purposes GEM is limited and doesnot capture the multidimensional view of women¶s empowerment. It cannot be assumed that if adevelopment intervention promotes women¶s empowerment along a particular dimension thatempowerment in other areas will necessarily follow. A number of studies have shown that women may be empowered in one area of life while not in others. While we do not attempttoresolve this debate, we take the position, that women¶s empowerment can be measured by factors contributing to each of the following: their personal, economic, familial, and politicalempowerment. We make a point to include household and interfamilial relations as we believe isa central locus of women¶s dis- empowerment in Pakistan. And by including the political, weposit that women¶s empowerment measures should include women¶s participation in systemictransformation by engaging in political action.
Bandura (1986)
suggests that a person's self-expectations determine whether or not certain behavior will be undertaken, the extent of effort expended by the individual, and whether theindividual can persist in the face of challenges encountered. This notion of self-efficacy ismediated by a person's beliefs or expectations about his/her ability to achieve certain taskseffectively or exhibit certain behaviors .
 According Malhorata and Mather(1997) Kishor(1995) and 2000 Hashami (1996)
  According to all these we do not attempt resolve this debate, we take the position can bemeasured by factors contributing to each of the following their personal, economic, familial andpolitical empowerment.
 According to Amin, Becker,Buyes(1998).
 According to these writers in many countrieshusband empowered their wives in household affairs. According these writers this is notempowerment. They think that empowerment mean political and legal awareness involvementin major decisions and involvement in political campagigning. Amin, Becker and Bayes (1998)split the concept of women¶s empowerment into three components each measured separately:Inter-spouse consultation index, which seeks to represent the extent to which husbands consulttheir wives in household affairs; Individual autonomy indexes which represents women¶s self-reported autonomy of physical movement outside the house and in matters of spending money;and the Authority index, which reports on actual decision-making power (which is traditionally in the hands of the patriarch of the family). These indices are similar to those of used by Balk inher 1994 study. Comparable components of empowerment are included in the eight indicators by Hashemi (1996): mobility, economic security, ability to make a small purchases, ability tomake larger purchases, involvement in major decisions, relative freedom from domination by the family, political and legal awareness, and involvement in political campaigning and protests.Several different efforts have been made in recent years to develop comprehensive frameworksdelineating the various dimensions along which women can be empowered (Malhotra, Schulerand Boender, 2002) We construct four separate components of empowerment in Table 1 thatdraw from many of the authors mentioned earlier and especially rely on Hashemi (1996) and Amin Becker and Bayes, (1998), as their work seems most relevant for rural women in Pakistan.

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