making (measured by the percentage of female administrators and managers, and professionaland technical employees), and political participation and decision-making (measured by thepercentage of seats in parliament held by women). For our purposes GEM is limited and doesnot capture the multidimensional view of women¶s empowerment. It cannot be assumed that if adevelopment intervention promotes women¶s empowerment along a particular dimension thatempowerment in other areas will necessarily follow. A number of studies have shown that women may be empowered in one area of life while not in others. While we do not attempttoresolve this debate, we take the position, that women¶s empowerment can be measured by factors contributing to each of the following: their personal, economic, familial, and politicalempowerment. We make a point to include household and interfamilial relations as we believe isa central locus of women¶s dis- empowerment in Pakistan. And by including the political, weposit that women¶s empowerment measures should include women¶s participation in systemictransformation by engaging in political action.
suggests that a person's self-expectations determine whether or not certain behavior will be undertaken, the extent of effort expended by the individual, and whether theindividual can persist in the face of challenges encountered. This notion of self-efficacy ismediated by a person's beliefs or expectations about his/her ability to achieve certain taskseffectively or exhibit certain behaviors .
According Malhorata and Mather(1997) Kishor(1995) and 2000 Hashami (1996)
According to all these we do not attempt resolve this debate, we take the position can bemeasured by factors contributing to each of the following their personal, economic, familial andpolitical empowerment.
According to Amin, Becker,Buyes(1998).
According to these writers in many countrieshusband empowered their wives in household affairs. According these writers this is notempowerment. They think that empowerment mean political and legal awareness involvementin major decisions and involvement in political campagigning. Amin, Becker and Bayes (1998)split the concept of women¶s empowerment into three components each measured separately:Inter-spouse consultation index, which seeks to represent the extent to which husbands consulttheir wives in household affairs; Individual autonomy indexes which represents women¶s self-reported autonomy of physical movement outside the house and in matters of spending money;and the Authority index, which reports on actual decision-making power (which is traditionally in the hands of the patriarch of the family). These indices are similar to those of used by Balk inher 1994 study. Comparable components of empowerment are included in the eight indicators by Hashemi (1996): mobility, economic security, ability to make a small purchases, ability tomake larger purchases, involvement in major decisions, relative freedom from domination by the family, political and legal awareness, and involvement in political campaigning and protests.Several different efforts have been made in recent years to develop comprehensive frameworksdelineating the various dimensions along which women can be empowered (Malhotra, Schulerand Boender, 2002) We construct four separate components of empowerment in Table 1 thatdraw from many of the authors mentioned earlier and especially rely on Hashemi (1996) and Amin Becker and Bayes, (1998), as their work seems most relevant for rural women in Pakistan.