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PU Impedence Calculation

# PU Impedence Calculation

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08/01/2013

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SYSTEM EQUIVALENT IMPEDANCE CALCULATIONSMDB %Z---fault impedances at MDBMV System Impedance contribution
1.System voltageUtility Power Short Circuit MVA, MVA
USC
System FaultSystem X/R ratio, X/R
Per Unit Impedance, Resistance & Reactance at 100 MVA base
Impedance p.u., Z
NT p.u.
=Base MVA / MVA
USC
Resistance p.u., R
NT p.u.
=
√
[(Z
NT p.u.
)
2
/(1+X/R
2
)]Reactance p.u., X
NT p.u.
= R
NT p.u.
x (X/R)
Utility Per Unit impedance:
Per Unit Impedance, Resistance & Reactance at 100 MVA base
Ohm's LawVA = I/V ------- eqn. 1VA = V
2
/ Zu ------- eqn. 2Multiply eqn. 2 by(1000)
2
MVAusc = Kv
2
/Zu ------- eqn. 3Solving for Utility impedance ZuZu = Kv
2
/ MVAusc ------- eqn. 4For ZbaseZbase = Kv
2
/ MVA base ------- eqn.5For Zpu(per unit)Zpu = Zu / Zbase ------- eqn.6Divide eqn. 4 by eqn. 5 ThenZpu = (MVAbase/MVAusc) x (Kv
2
/ kVbase
2
)For kVu = Kv base, then
Zpu = (MVA base / MVA usc)
Or
MVA usc = MVAbase / ZpuStation Service Transformer Impedance contribution
1.
K
VA Rating KVA
T
CR4 - Comment: Re: Transformer short circuit current1 of 4

% Impedance at rated kVA, %Z
T1
Secondary voltage, KV
s
Copper loss, P
L
Impedance, Z
T1
=10 x %Z x KV
S2
/ KVA
T
% Resistance, %R
T1
=(P
L
x 100) / KVA
T
Reactance, %X
T1
=
√
(%Z
T1
)
2
- (%R
T1
)
2
%
Transformer per unit impedance:
Per Unit Impedance, Resistance & Reactance at 100 MVA base
%Impedance Formula
%Zt = I x Zt x 100 /V ------- eqn.1Multiply eqn. 1 by (V/V), then%Zt =Zt x I x V x 100/V
2
------- eqn.2Simplify;Multiply eqn. 2 by(1000/1000)
2
, then%Zt = MVAt x 100/Kv
2
------- eqn.3Base impedanceZpu = Zt x MVA base / Kv
2
base ------- eqn.4Divide eqq. 4 by eqn. 3 and solve for Zpu, thenZpu = (%Zt /100) x (MVA base / MVAt) x (Kv
2
/ kVVbase
2
)If kVt = kVbase, then
Zpu = ((%Zt /100) x ( MVA base / MVAt)
Or
Zpu = (%Zt /100) x (MVAbase x 1000/kVAt)Generator Impedance contributionMVA BaseData
MVA BaseKVA Rating% Sub-transient Impedance at rated kVA, %"Z
G
Secondary voltage, KV
s
Generator X/R, X
G
/R
G
CR4 - Comment: Re: Transformer short circuit current2 of 4

Per Unit Impedance, Resistance & Reactance at 100 MVA base
Impedance p.u., Z
G

P.U
.= (%Z
G
x Base MVA x 1000)/(100 x Gen.KVA)Resistance p.u., R
G p.u.
=
√
[(Z
G p.u.
)
2
/(1+X
G
/R
G2
)]Reactance p.u., X
G p.u.
= R
G p.u.
x (X
G
/R
G
)
Generator per unit impedance%Impedance Formula
%Zg = I x Zg x 100 /V ------- eqn.1Multiply eqn. 1 by (V/V), then%Zg =Zg x I x V x 100/V
2
------- eqn.2Simplify;Multiply eqn. 2 by(1000/1000)
2
, then%Zg = MVAg x 100/Kv
2
------- eqn.3Base impedanceZpu = Zg x MVA base / Kv
2
base ------- eqn.4Divide eqq. 4 by eqn. 3 and solve for Zpu, thenZpu = (%Zg /100) x (MVA base / MVAg) x (Kv
2
/ kVVbase
2
)If kVg = kVbase, then
Zpu = ((%Zg /100) x ( MVA base / MVAg)
Or
Zpu = (%Zg /100) x (MVAbase x 1000/kVAg)Cable Data from Generator to MDB
SINGLE CORE CABLE, CU/XLPE/PVC, 0.6/1kVResistance, R
G
Re Length, L
G
Total Resistance, R
TG
=R
G
x L
G
/1000Total Resistance, R
TG
=R
G
x L
G
/1000Total Impedance, Z
TG
=
√
R
GT2
+ X
GT2
No. of conductor run(s) per phase, N
GC
Final Resistance, R
FG
=R
TG
/N
GC
Per Unit Impedance, Resistance & Reactance at 100 MVA base
3 of 4

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