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DDeli_Rockville_MacV1000_1985

DDeli_Rockville_MacV1000_1985

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Published by DDelik
The paper summarizes the results from a GPS campaign, with emphasis on the surveying logistics and the practical aspects of surveying with the Macrometer V-1000 receiver, data processing and adjustment methods of the data.
The paper summarizes the results from a GPS campaign, with emphasis on the surveying logistics and the practical aspects of surveying with the Macrometer V-1000 receiver, data processing and adjustment methods of the data.

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Published by: DDelik on Jun 28, 2011
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PRECISERELATIVEPOSITIONINGWITHTHEMACROMETERV-1000INTERFEROMETRICSURVEYOR:EXPERIENCESATTHEGEODETICSURVEYOFCANADAD.McArthur,N.Beck,K.Lochhead,D.DelikaraoglouGeodeticSurveyDivisionSurveysandMappingBranchEnergy,MinesandResources615BoothStreetOttawaCanadaKIAOE9ABSTRACT.Duringthesummerof1983theEarthBranch(EPB)andtheCanadianGeodeticSurvey(CGS)PhysicsoftheFederalDepartmentofEnergy,MinesandResourcesleasedtwoMacrometer(TM)V~lOOOGPSreceiversinordertoevaluatethislatestsurveyingtechnologyandtestvariousindependentsetsofprocessingsoftware.TheresultsofthiscampaignonapreciseGPStestnetworkintheOttawaarealedCGStouse,inasubsequentcampaign,fourMacrometerreceiverssimultaneously,tosurveya22-stationnetworkintheprovinceofManitobaduringthesummerof1984.Thispapersummarizestheresultsobtainedduringthiscampaign,withemphasisonthesurveyinglogisticsandthepracticalaspectsofsurveyingwiththeMacrometerV-1000receiver,dataprocessingapproachesandadjustmentmethodsofthedata.INTRODUCTIONPreciserelativepositioningisapartofthebroadermandateofCGS,encompassingtheentirespectrumofsurveyingoperations,mappingandpositioningservices.ItiswiththisgoalinmindthattheuseoftheGlobalPositioningSystem(GPS)forgeodeticandgeodynamicapplicationshasreceivedseriousattentionoverthepastfewyears.Inthesummerof1983,EPBandCGSconductedthefirstevaluationinCanadaofthetheMacrometerV-1000InterferometricSurveyoronaprecisecalibrationnetworkintheOttawaarea,establishedbyCGSforthepurposeofevaluatingvariousGPSreceivers(McArthur,1985).Theresultsofthistest(BeutleretaI,1984;Valliantetal,1985)andreportedresultsoftestsconductedbyotherorganizationshaveencouragedCGStouseMacrometerV-1000receiversforconductingacontrolsurveynearGimli,Manitoba.Thispaperpresentssomepracticalaspectsofplanningandconductingsuchasurvey,thedataprocessingapproachandtheresultsofthesurveyinManitoba.PRACTICALASPECTSTheobjectiveoftheGimliareasurveywastoobtainhighaccuracyrelative3-Dcoordinates(2ppmorbetter)for22existingstationsusingfourMacrometer
V~lOOO
reCeivers.
Embeddedinthisprimaryobjective,threeadditional
 
objectiveswereto:(a)gainsomehandsonexperienceinplanningsuchmulti-receiverGPSoperations;(b)toprovidethedatanecessaryforconductingfurtheranalysesrelatingtofuturedeploymentstrategiesanddatahandling;and(c)evaluatetheimpactofthesinglefrequencyonlycapabilityoftheV-I000inmzasuringbaselinesupto150km.Inplanningthesurvey,controlpointswereselectedaroundtheperimeterofthesurveyareawhichhadeitherbeenobservedwithTRANSITDopplerorwhichwerepartofthenationalframework.Toensureredundancy,everyinternalpointwastohavethreevectorsmeasuredtoit(Hothemetal,1984)preferablyduringatleasttwodifferentsessions.A5-hourobservationperiodwaschosentoprovideuSdataforallvisiblesatellitesinthepresentconstellation.Satellites4,6,8,9,11,13(seeFigure2)wereobservedwhenevertheywerevisiblebetweenabout13:00and18:00localtime(atimewhenthestateoftheionosphereisrapidlychanging).Toavoidunnecessarydelaysoncethereceiversarrivedonsite,reconnaissancewasdonepriortotheirarrival.Eachsitewasvisitedtocheckforobstructionsover15degreesofelevation(sometreeswereclearedatonesite),todeterminethebestaccess,andtoensurethatthereceivervehicleswouldgetwithin30-60metresofthesite.Threebaselocationswereselectedtobeusedthroughouttheprojecttominimizethedailydrivingtimes.Inspiteofthis,theone-waydrivingtimetosomestationswasuptothreehours.Thefour-receiversystemsandvehiclesweredriventotheGimliareafromGEO/HYDROWashington.Three
4-vlD
vehiclesandonestationwagonwereusedforreceiverdeployment.
An
extrastationwagonwasusedasabackupvehicle.Thebackupwasforcedintooperationseveraldaysintotheprojectwhenonevehicleblewanengine.Vehiclesandpowersupplies(batteries,ACgenerators,inverters)areallvital,integralpartsoftheV-I000system.AlthoughACgeneratorsfailedattimes(orranoutoffuel),backupbatterysystemskeptthesystemsgoingduringtheseperiods.Onlyontwooccasionswasthereatotallossofdataduetoapowerproblem.Uponarrivalatasitetheantennahadtobecenteredabovethemonumentonstandardsurveytripods.Opticalplummetsinstandardtribrachswereused.Theplummetwasremovedandthe"unwieldy"19kgantennawasplacedintothetribrach,oftencausingthetribrachtomove,especiallyonwindydays.Ratherthanrestarttheprocedure,plumb-bobswereusedtore-centertheantenna.Oneantennaarrivedwithamalfunctioningpre-amp,thishardwareproblemwasrepairedwithinacoupleofdaysbyfieldpersonnel.Clockcalibrationlogswerekeptdaily:therecommendedclocksychronizationproceduresofsynchronizingonereceivertotheGeosynchronusOrbitingEarthSatellite(GOES)andthentooneanotherWerefollowed,resultinginallreceiverclocksbeingreferencedtoUTCtowithinamillisecond.Attheendofeachday-sobservingsession,thedifferencesinthereceiverclocksrelativetooneanotherwererecordedtoensurethatgoodaprioriestimatesforclockoffsetsanddriftratescouldbeusedinthebaselinesolution.Meteorologicalinformation,wetanddrybulbtemperatures,andpressurewererecordedeveryhourduringobservationsandrecordedinlogsateachreceiversite.Asiteobstructiondiagramlogwasmaintainedalongwithequipmentandprojectlogs
detailingthe
daily
operations.
 
AP-1000processingsystemhadbeenbroughtalonginordertogeneratereceivercontrolfiles(A-files)foreachsitedaily.Unfortunatelythecomputersystemfailedduringtheveryfirstdayofoperationandwasnotrepaireduntilthelastday.InthemeantimeA-fileshadtobesentdailyviatelephonelinesfromCEO/HYDROofficeinWashington.Becausewewereinaruralarea,thecommunicationlineswerequitepoor,sothatoften,transferoftheA-filestookthreetofourhourstocomplete.Withsuchpoorcommunicationlines,attemptstotransmitobserveddatatoGEO/HYDROforverificationweresoonaborted.Onthelastdayofoperation,aftertheP-1000wasrepaired,asimpledataverificationprogram(DALOOK)wasruntoexamineallthecollecteddata.Theprogramoutputindicatesthesignalqualityforthedatarecordedforeachtrackerateveryepoch.Nobaselinehadtobereobservedonthebasisofthisoutputsodemobilizationcouldbegin.Inall,fromAugust6(day219)toAugust22(day230)theV-1000unitsweredeployed65times.Only3timeswasdatalostornotcollectedforthereasonsalreadystated.However,hadtherebeennofailures,thecampaignwouldhavebeencompletedin12daysinsteadofthe17daysiteventuallytook.DATAPROCESSINGThephaseasreceivedfromonesatelliteatoneepochisreferredtoasa"one-wayphase"measurement.Theerrorsinthismeasurementareduetotherandomandsystematicvariationscausedbyclockerrorsofthesatelliteandreceiveroscillators,receivermeasurementnoiseanddelaysaswellasatmosphericdelaysofthesignal.Theportionofthesystematicerrors,whicharecommontothetwostationscanbeeffectivelyremovedbydifferencingthephasedatareceivedsimultaneouslybytwostationstoformthesingledifferenceobservables.Differencingagain,thistimebetweensatellitesyieldstheso-calleddoubledifferences.Itisthis"observable"whichisusedbyCEO/HYDROforbaselinedeterminationbetweenstationsobservingsimultaneouslyuptosixsatellites(i.e.currentmaximunnumberofsatellitestheV-1000iscapableoftracking).Errorswhichremaininthistypeofobservationaretheresidualionosphericandtroposphericrefractiononthepropagationofthesignalsandtheresidualsatellite
ephemeriserrors.
GEO/HYDROprogramLSQT,usesthedoubledifferenceobservationsandsolvesforthethreecomponentsofthepositionoftheunknownendofthebaseline,andoutputstheassociatedstandarddeviationandcorrelationsofthesecomponents.Althoughfourreceiverswereusedsimultaneously,thecollecteddatawasprocessedina"baseline-by-baseline"fashionwhichyieldsonlyapartialsetofresultssinceitdoesnotaccountfortheinherentrelationshipsbetweenvariousbaselines.Thisnecessitatedasubsequentnetworkadjustmenttoarriveataconsistentsetoffinalcoordinates.InordertousetheLSQToutputvaluesasinputtoournetworkadjustmentprogramCASPER,severaltransformationswererequired.AftertransformingtheLSQTcorrelationspintoaright-handedcoordinatesystembytaking

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