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Turkish

Turkish

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Published by: miaterry89 on Jun 28, 2011
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05/31/2014

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The Turkish Alphabet
The Turkish alphabet contains 29 letters, 8 of which are vowels and 21 of which are consonants.Here is the alphabet, with the vowels in red and the consonants in black;
ab c ç def g g hi ij k l m no öp r s s tu üv y z Pronounciation
Turkish is generally quite easy to pronounce, mainly because unlike English, words are said just asthey are written and every letter (with the exception of - 'Ğ') are pronounced. The unfamiliar lettersare pronounced as follows:ç - 'ch' (as in '
ch
urch')c - 'j' (as in
 j
ealous)g - silent but lengthens the vowel beforeı - 'uh' (as in b
u
t)ö - 'er' (as in b
ur
n)ş - 'sh' (as it
sh
ut)ü - 'ooh' (as in f 
e
w)
Examples
şeker (sugar) is pronounced 'she-ker'göz (eye) is pronounced 'gurz'çalmak (to work) is pronounced 'cha-lush-mak'kadın (woman) is pronounced 'ka-duhn'utangaç (shy) is pronounced 'utan-gach'cuma (friday) is pronounced 'juma'soğuk (cold) is pronounced 'so-ook'
Basic Information
Perhaps the hardest thing to learn is word order, as it is almost the direct opposite of English. Forexample, in English we would say 'I am going...to the shop...with my friend'. In Turkish though wewould say 'With my friend...to the shop...I am going'.
 
The basic rule for word order in Turkish is generallysubject+object+verb, for example; The cat wanted food =kedi(the cat)yemek(food)istedi(wanted). Another difference between English and Turkish is that there is no gender; he/she/it are all counted asthe same, which can be quite confusing sometimes!Unlike English, suffixes are used for almost everything in Turkish, by adding a suffix onto the root word you can completely change the meaning of a word. Words such as 'my, from, to, with, in, before,after, whilst' and many more are all added to the root word rather than being a seperate word on theirown, for example - 'from my house' - 'evimden'.
Vowel Harmony Part 1
Vowel harmony is essential to learn in order to speak Turkish well, however at first it is quite hard tounderstand, so I will try to make this guide as simple to understand as possible!In Turkish there are 8 vowels. We can split these into 2 groups. These are:e, i, ö, ü (known as 'front' vowels)a, ı, o, u (known as 'back' vowels)It is essential to learn which vowels go into which group. To make this easier, think of them as the 'edotted group' (which contains 'e' and the 3 vowels with dots), and the 'a undotted group' (whichcontains the 'a' and the 3 undotted groups).Many suffixes are also split into two, for example '-den/-dan' (from), '-de/-da' (in/on/at), and '-(y)e/-(y)a' (to). Vowel harmony ensures that the correct suffix is used depending on what the last vowel inthe word is.
If the last letter is a 'front' vowel, then '-den', '-de', and '-(y)e' would be used.If the last letter is a 'back' vowel, then '-dan', '-da', and '-(y)a' would be used.Examples
House = EvCar = ArabaFrom = -den (suffix)In = -de (suffix)To = -(y)e (suffix)
 
From the house = EvdenFrom the car = ArabadanTo the house = EveTo the car = ArabayaIn the house = EvdeIn the car = Arabada
Vowel Harmony Part 2
You should have already looked at the VowelHarmony 1section and you will have seen how the vowels are split into 2 groups, each of which take different suffixes.However, there are other suffixes that instead of taking either 'e' or 'a', take either 'i, ı, ü, u', suchas ...'-(i)yorum' (i am ....ing), '..dim' (i did...), and '-siz' (without). Therefore we need to split thesuffixes into more groups in order to add the suffixes with the correct vowels.For example if the suffix is '-siz' (without) then the 'i' will change into:If the last vowel is:
'e' or 'i' - stays as 'i' (-siz)'a' or 'ı' - changes to 'ı' (-sız)'ü' or 'ö - changes to 'ü' (-süz)'u' or 'o' - changes to 'u' (-suz)
This applies to a number of suffixes, such as the past suffix ('...dim'), the possessive suffix (-im, -sinetc) and the 'without' suffix (-siz), as well as many more. Click on the suffixes page to discover more.
Examples
For now we will just use just two suffixes, the '-siz' suffix, meaning 'without....'. and '-li', meaning'with...'.sugar - şekerwithout sugar - şekersizwith sugar - şekerlimilk - sütwithout milk - sütsüzwith milk - sütlüice - buzwithout ice - buzsuzwith ice - buzlu

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