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DDeli 1990 Monitoring Oceans

DDeli 1990 Monitoring Oceans

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MONITORINGTHEOCEANSWITHSATELLITEALTIMETRYTECHNIQUES
t
DemitrisDelikaraoglou
(1),
NicholasChristou
(2)
andMarioBerube
(3)
(1)
1RILOGYSpacetechInc.,P.O.Box80014,Ottawa,Ontario,CanadaK1S5N6.(FormelywithCanadaCentreforSurveying,GeodeticSurveyingDivision,615BoothStreet,Ottawa,Ontario,CanadaKIAOE9)
(2)
UniversityofNewBrunswick,DepartroentofSurveyingEngineering,Fredericton,NewBrunswick,CanadaE3BSA3
(3)
CanadaCentreforSurveying,GeodeticSurveyingDivision,615BoothStreet,Ottawa,Ontario,CanadaKIAOE9ABSTRACTSatelliteradaraltimetermeasurementsprovidearecordoftheelevationoftheseasurface,theheightofitswavesandthewindspeeddirectlybeneaththesatellite.Forthepast
three
years,analtimeteronboardtheUnitedStatesNavy'sGEOSATsatellitehasusedthistechnologytoprovideaccurateinformationaboutthesealevelsandoceancirculationpatterns.Theseobservationsprovidedirectlyanincreadiblyrichsourceofsynopticandglobalinformationenablingustostudyoceansurfacevariabilityontimeandspacescalesunavailableinthepast;tobetterunderstandtheroleofoceancirculationinpastandfutureclimate;toprovideaccuratewaveinformationformoreefficientoperationofcommercialandnavalvessels;andtoproduceaccuratepredictionsoftides,tidecurrentsandsurfacewindswhichareessentialtosafecoastalnavigation,resourceexplorationandexploitation(e.g.fisheriesandenergy).Inthenearfuture,plannedaltimetrysystemssuchasthosetobedeployedintheearlyandmid-1990sonboardtheSALT,ERS-IandTOPEX/Poseidonsatelliteswillvastlyimproveourabilitytoobservethedet:lHe.dpictureoftheocean'scirculationneededtodiscernthesubtlevariationsandweatherpatternsofthesea.Thiscanbeachievedbycarryingoutrepeatedobservationswhichwouldresultinaseriesoftopographicalmapsoftheelevationoftheseasurface.Thesemaps
wouldnotonlyrevealtheoverallbehaviouroftheseasurface,butalsosmallerchangesandfluctuations.
In
helong
term,
satellitealtimeterdatawill
be
combinedwiththelatestinformationregardingoceandensityandwiththeoriesofoceandynamics
to
producefora
first
time
accuratemodelsofhowtheglobaloceancirculation(fromitssurface
to
theseafloor)changesovertime,andthusprovetobeextremelyusefulindetectingclimaticchangesandverifyingmodelresults.Thecriticalstepnowinfrontofusistobringthetechnologyintoanoperationalenvironmentwhereitwillbeused,alongwithdatafromotherremotesensingsatellitesensorsforglobalclimatemonitoring.Inpreparationfortheseupcomingmissions,applicationstudiesarebeingcarriedoutattheCanadianCentreforSurveyingtodevelopanoperationalsystemforaltimeterdataanalysisandprocessing.UnclassifieddatafromtheGEOSATExactRepeatMissionarebeingusedtodevelopneworrevisedalgorithmsandtoproducetrialproducts.Thispaperreviewsthesedevelopments,theresultscurrentlyobtainedfromGEOSATdata,andtheexperimentsplannedfortheupcomingmissions.KEYWORDS:SatelliteAltimetry,EnvironmentalMonitoring,OceanicStudiesINTRODUCTION(Eos)programisfoundedontherealization
that
majorproblemsconcerningTodatetechniquesforobservingtheEarthfromspacehaveevolvedtothepointthattheycanbeexploitedtoachieveanunderstandingofhowtheEarth'satmosphere,oceans,landandice-coveredregionsfunctionandinteractasanintegratedsystem.ThegrowingawarenesstoseetheEarthasone"system"hasledtoaninitiativebyNASA,theEuropeanSpaceAgency(ESA),CanadaandJapantoestablisharealisticandaffordableoverallstrategyforEarthobservation.Themajorrationaleforthefuture
EarthObservingSystem
thewell-beingoftheenvironmentandtheincreasingevidenceofclimaticchanges;themanagementoflimitedresourcesvis-it-vistheincreasingdemandfortheseresources;theincreasinglystringentoperationalconstraintsonforecastingmeteorologicalsystems;andtheunderstandingoftheEarth'sgeo-kinematicsandgeophysics,gravityandmagneticfields,therelationshipsofsea-levelchangesandclimatologyetc.
"Re-printfromtheProc.o/theISPRSSymp.onGlobalandEnvironmentalMonitoring:TechniquesandImpacts,Victoria,B.C.,Sept.17-21,Vol.
28(7),
pp.81-88.
 
canonlybeaddressedeffectivelybyassessingtheimportance
I
relevanceofEarthobservationtospecificinterdisciplinaryproblemsrelevanttotheseissues.Inparticular,theoceanicandpolarregionsoftheEarthhavebecomethefocusofconsiderableattentioninrecentyearsinconnectionwithglobalclimaticconcerns,themainreasonsbeingthat:Oceanicstorageofheatcanstronglyinfluencetherateandamountofgreenhousewarming,andtheoceansthemselvesaremajorsinksforcarbondioxide.Thisrealizationstressestheneedforabetterunderstandingoftheroleoftheoceansandicecoverineithermodulatingoramplifyingthewarmingtrend;Thereisgrowingevidencethatthepolarregionsplayakeyroleinthephysicalprocessesresponsibleforglobalclimaticfluctuations.Inmanyinstances,theymightevenbetheprimesourceofsuchfluctuations;Polarregionsarenowwidelyrecognizedasimportantrepositoriesofinformationonpaleoclimatesandthecausesofpastclimaticchanges;Thereismountingconcernthatsystematicwarmingofthepolarregionsanddramatictrendsinozonedepletion(believedtobeadirectconsequenceofaman-induced"greenhouseeffect")willalterthebalanceoftheicemassesandthusaffecttheglobalsealevelwithalltheattendantconsequencesintermsoffloodcontrol,surfaceandgroundwaterlevelmanagementandecology;Fieldobservationshavenowrevealedapossibledisintegrationofthepolaricesheets,withthesurfaceglaciersasamajorcontributortoanassociatedsea-levelrise.TheecosystemsofCanada,whichareintriosicallylinkedtoclimatewillinevitablyrespondtothesechanges.InamajorassessmentofthegreenhouseeffectonCanada,researchwithinEnvironmentCanadasuggeststhatacrossCanadatherewillbegenerallymilderwintersandwarmersummers.Theeasternandcentralpartsofthecountryarelikelytogetdrier,whilethewestandnorthwillgetwetter.Asaresult,theprairiesarelikelytofacemorefrequentandseveredroughtsofthe
type
thathavecausedhundredsofmillionsofdollarsinlossesinthemid-1980's.Atthesametime,climatewarmingwouldlikelycausetheGreatLakestodrop(overthenextfewdecades)byasmuchasonemeterbecauseofgreaterevaporationwithalltheattendantlossestohydropower,shippingandlargelycompetingdemandsforavailablewater--lakesinnorthwesternOntarioarealreadythreedegreeswarmerthantheyweretwentyyearsagoandareice-freeforsome15daysmoreeachyear(Keating,1989).WhilewaterlevelsarepredictedtofallintheinteriorofCanada,theywillriseontheseacoasts.Witha250,000
km
coastline(theworld'slongest)thatrangesthroughwidelyvaryingenvironmentsandthreeboundingoceans,Canadamaybeoneofthecountriesatgreatestrisk.
If
currentglobalwarmingforecastsproveaccurate,andtemperatureskeeprising,thepolaricecapswillgraduallymeltandCanada'ssurroundingoceanicwaterscouldpotentiallyrise(perhapsbyasmuchas5-7erneachyear).TheicebarriersoftheArcticwillmeltback,openingtheNorthwesternPassagetocommercialandmilitarynavigation(thustestingCanada'sclaimtosovereigntyoverthewatersoftheCanadianArcticarchipelago).WeatherinCanadawilllikelybecomemoreextreme,leadingtomorestormswithmorepowerfulwinds.OntheAtlanticcoast,storm-drivenwavesandhightidesarealreadycausingextensivefloodingandpropertydamage.Stormtrackswilllikelyshift,meaningthatnewareaswillbeatrisk.Dependingontheextentoflocaldevelopment,thiscouldresultinfurtherpropertydestructionanddisrupttransportationnetworksandmunicipalservices.Knowledgeoftheclimaticchanges,especiallyoftheArcticOcean,ishowever,morethanofregionalimportancetoCanada.Thecountry'svastextent(-7%oftheEarth's
land
surface),criticalhighlatitudeposition,anddominantroleintheglobalclimateofthepastensurethattheCanadianlandmassandthearcticregionsinparticularwillattract
considerableattention
within
GlobalChange
relatedprograms
(e.g.the
InternationalGeosphere-BiosphereProgram
(IGBP),andfutureprogramssuchasEos).Forinstance,itwouldbeimpossibletomodelformerglobalchangeswithoutunderstandingtheglacial/postglacialhistoryoftheLaurentideicesheet.
In
addition,existingclimaticmodelssuggestthatthegreatestimpactofpotentia!globalwarmingwilloccurfirstandbemostdramaticallydetectedinhigherlatitudes.HenceunderstandingthecriticalroleCanada'senvironmentandparticularlyoftheCanadian
Arctic
isvitaltofutureclimaticscenariosandindeterminingtheglobalclimateandoceancirculationsystems.
GEODETICSATELLITESTOIMPLEMENTTHEEARTHOBSERVINGSTRATEGY
Theonlywaytoevaluatetheeffectsofglobalchange,notonlyinCanadabutalsoataglobalscale,istotrytomodeltheinteractionsoftheprocessesinvolved,bothnowandinthepast,whilemaintaininganinformationsysteminwhichlong-termandshort-termobservationalrecordsareobtainedroutinely,maintainedandinterpreted.Unequivocaldocumentationofchangeisneededtoprovidestatevariablesforpredictionmodelsandtoestablishthehardevidenceonwhichdifficultdecisionsmustbebased.Inthiscontext,geodeticandremotesensingsatelliteswillhaveaprominentroletoplayinthevariouspre-EosandEosplannedprograms.Altimeter-carryiugsatellitesinparticularwillprovideimportantdataforthemonitoringoftheoceansandthecouplingoftheoceanandtheatmosphere,allofwhichare
essentialfor
theunderstanding
ofthe
dynamics
oftheocean
 
circulation,theroleoftheoceansintheclimate,andtherefinementsoftheEarth'sgravitationalfieldmodels,
TOPEXIPoseidon
willbeadedicatedaltimetrymissionplannedfora1994timeframelaunch,offeringthehighestachievableaccuracyandprecision(-I
ern)
overmostwavelengthsofinterest,inanorbitspecificallychosentoproduceoptimumresultsforoceanographicexperiments,
An
earliermission,withtheEuropeanSpaceAgency's
ERS-
1
satellite(plannedforanearly1991launch),isprimarilyorientedtowardsiceandoceanmonitoringwith,inaddition,all-weatherhighresolutionmicrowaveimagingcapabilitiesoverlandandcoastalzones.Tofulfillthemeasurementobjectivesofthemission,ERS-lwillcarryinstrumentationconsistingofacoresetofsensors(i.e.a
SyntheticApertureRadar
(SAR)andawaveandwind
Scatterometer,
andanadir-pointing
RadarAltimeter)
supportedbyadditionalcomplementaryinstruments
(i.e,
an
AlongTrackScanningRadiometer
and
MicrowaveSounder,
and
PresiceRangeandRange-rateEquipment,
PRARE)providingingeneralall-weather,dayandnight,highaccuracyobservations.WithaplannedminimumtemporaloverlapwithTOPEXofoneyear,ERS-I
will
extendorbitalcoveragetothehighestachievable
latitudes(-82°)
togivecoverageofthenear-polar
regions.
LW]
addition,adequate
plans
exist
todate.
inNASA's
GeopotentialREsearchMission
(GREM)andESA's
ARISTOTELES
mission,foragravityprogramcapableofdeterminingtheEarth'sgeoidwithanabsoluteaccuracyof2cmorbetterdowntowavelengthsoftheorderof100
km
whichisessentialnotonlyforthedetermination
of
thetime-variableoceancirculation,butalsofortheaccuratedeterminationofthesatellite'sorbitAspartofNASA'sandESA'smulti-mission
EarthObservationSystem
(Eos)program,TOPEX-classradaraltimeters,combinedwiththemodempracticesofprecisionorbitdetermination,willprovideaccurateandprecisemeansofseasurfacetopographychangesoverseveralyears.Whencombinedwithappropriatein-situmeasurementstheseobervationswillpermitthedeterminationofathree-dimensionalstructure
of
theworldoceans.AlsoproposedforEosisa
GeodynamicsLaserRangingandAltimeterSystem
(GLRS),forrapidmeasurementsofcrustaldeformationandmicro-topographymappingoftheocean,landandicesurfaces.Inadditiontoobservationalcapabilitiesfromthepolarplatforms,the
Eos
programwillbesupplementedbymoderate-cost
Earth
Probemissions,eachofwhichwillbecharacterizedbyachoiceoforbitandspacecraftdesigncapableofachievingaparticularobjective.
CANADIANPLANS
FOR
Eos
Long-termPlansTherearecurrentlyanumberofresearchinitiativeswithinvariousCanadianGovernmentDepartmentsaimedataddressingtheroleofsatelliteobservationstogiveabetterunderstandingoftheCanada'snorthernenvironmentincludingthelandandicecomponents,andthesurroundingoceanicareas.Twomajorinitiativesareparticularlyworthmentioning:(a)AsanassociatememberoftheEuropeanSpaceAgency,CanadaisacontributortotheERS-Imission.AccesstotheERS-ldataisamajorreasonforCanada'sparticipationintheERS-lprogram.NationalrequirementsforERS-Ihavebeenderivedfromanumberofrequirementsbasedontheextensionofremotesensingprogramswithinvariousgovernmentdepartments(notablyCanadaCentreforRemoteSensing(CCRS),CanadaCentreforSurveying(CCS)andFigure
1-
SatelliteAltimetryModeGeometrytheGeologicalSurveyofCanada;AtmosphericEnvironmentService(AES);andFisheriesandOceans),andinterestedindustryanduniversitygroups.Thenationalobjectivesrepresentfourmajorareas:oceans,landresources,geologyandice,aswellasspecificscientificandapplicationpriorities.Overall,Canada'shighestpriorityisforregnlarguaranteedacquisitionofSARimagery,aswellasERS-!RadarAltimeter,ScatterometerandAlongTrackScanningRadiometersensordata.CanadaplanstooperatetwogroundstationsforacquisitionofERS-!SARimagedata,aswellasgloballowbitratedatasuchasaltimetry.Thesedataandfastdeliveryproductswillbedistributed
to
Canadianusersusingnationaldatanetworks.
(b)
Inasimilarcooperativeeffort,anEosinterdisciplinaryprogramforuseofa
CryosphericSystem
(CRYSYS)tomonitorglobalchangeinCanadahasrecentlycompleteditsdet1nitionphase(McNuttetat,1988).Atthetimeofthis

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