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Fluid Dynamics-Theory and Computation

Fluid Dynamics-Theory and Computation

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Published by alexandreramos
Fluid Dynamics
Dinâmica dos Fluidos
Fluid Dynamics
Dinâmica dos Fluidos

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Published by: alexandreramos on Jun 29, 2011
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08/17/2012

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Fluid Dynamics:
Theory and Computation 
Dan S. HenningsonMartin Berggren
August 24, 2005
 
Contents
1 Derivation of the Navier-Stokes equations 7
1.1 Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71.2 Kinematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81.3 Reynolds transport theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141.4 Momentum equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151.5 Energy equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191.6 Navier-Stokes equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201.7 Incompressible Navier-Stokes equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221.8 Role of the pressure in incompressible ow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2 Flow physics 29
2.1 Exact solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292.2 Vorticity and streamfunction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322.3 Potential ow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402.4 Boundary layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482.5 Turbulent ow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
3 Finite volume methods for incompressible ow 59
3.1 Finite Volume method on arbitrary grids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 593.2 Finite-volume discretizations of 2D NS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 623.3 Summary of the equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 653.4 Time dependent ows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 663.5 General iteration methods for steady ows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
4 Finite element methods for incompressible ow 71
4.1 FEM for an advectiondiusion problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 714.1.1 Finite element approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 724.1.2 The algebraic problem. Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 734.1.3 An example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 744.1.4 Matrix properties and solvability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 764.1.5 Stability and accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 764.1.6 Alternative Elements, 3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 804.2 FEM for NavierStokes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 824.2.1 A variational form of the Navier–Stokes equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 834.2.2 Finite-element approximations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 854.2.3 The algebraic problem in 2D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 854.2.4 Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 864.2.5 The LBB condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 874.2.6 Mass conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 884.2.7 Choice of nite elements. Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
A Background material 95
A.1 Iterative solutions to linear systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95A.2 Cartesian tensor notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98A.2.1 Orthogonal transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98A.2.2 Cartesian Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99A.2.3 Permutation tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100A.2.4 Inner products, crossproducts and determinants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100A.2.5 Second rank tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1013

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