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Some Issues of Ecological Hazards in Textile Industry

Some Issues of Ecological Hazards in Textile Industry

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Published by: maludeav on Jun 29, 2011
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By: Subrata Das
E-mail: drsubratadas2000@gmail.com1 INTRODUCTION
In today’s competitive world, domestic and export markets in textiles are progressing at a rapidpace. Exponential growth in global industrialization is noticed in the west and rest of the world. Innovationsin the use of electronics information technology, computers and automation are needed to achieve a highquality standard. Textile and apparel, being labour intensive industries, code of conduct at the work place ishard to overlook. But the main challenge before the textile production industry is as to how to produce aproduct at a competitive price by using environment friendly process and by reducing emissions andpollution treatment cost.Biosphere is under serious trouble and impact on its atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere byhuman cannot be ignored. Man made activities on water by domestic, industrial, agriculture, shipping, radio-active, aquaculture wastes; on air by industrial pollutants, mobile combustion, burning of fuels, agriculturalactivities, ionization radiation, cosmic radiation, suspended particulate matter; on land by domestic wastes,industrial waste, agricultural chemicals and fertilizers, acid rain, animal waste have negative influence over biotic and abiotic components on different natural eco-systems. Global warming, rising of sea level,abnormal climatic change, loss in bio-diversity, deforestation, ozone layer depletion are some of the adverseeffects on environment.Textile accounts for 30% of India’s export. There is no doubt that price, quality, turn around time andsocial compliance are the essential elements of export. Of late, clean processing has become an additionalrequirement. Unfortunately, in comparison to other branches of engineering and technology, environmentalpollution of textile industry seems to be the least studied area.How long can we continue to harm environment? Will our business exist if biosphere is polluted?Will textile industry survive and be able to compete? These are some of the questions, which have motivatedthe present study.
Textile industry contributes 30% of India’s export. It produces over 400 million meters of cloth andaround 1000 million kg of yarn per annum. Textile sector is labour intensive and nearly a million of workersare associated in various unit operations of about 700 mills. Textile wet processing activity contributes about70% of pollution in textile industry. It is estimated that there are around 12,500 textile processing unitswherein the requirement of water ranges from 10 litres with an average of 100 litres per kg [1]. Right fromcotton cultivation and manufacture of fibres, spinning, weaving, processing and finishing, more than 14,000dyes and chemicals are used and a significant quantity of these goes in the solid, liquid and air wastes,thereby impart pollution of air, land and surface water.Towards the end of 20
century, world has become more ecology consciousness and thus greentextile concept is emerged to facilitate eco-management in textile arena. Different unit operations, whichcontribute to eco degradation, are described and analysed in this chapter.2.1 Noise PollutionNoise is one of the most pervasive environmental problems. There is no doubt that it has adverseeffect on human beings, and their surroundings.The ISO defines noise intensity level [2] as:
L =
(P / P 
 ) =
(I / I 
are the sound pressures of the noise present at a place and the reference sound pressureat 1000 Hz at the threshold of hearing which is given by 20 micro Pascals.
is the sound intensity level beingmeasured and
is the reference sound intensity at 1000 Hz at the threshold of hearing and is given by 10
The relationship between sound pressure, sound intensity and intensity level (dB) is given in the literature[3]. The sound does not get perceived by the human ear in the same manner over the whole audiblefrequency range. Low-pitched sound of high intensity level (decibel count) could not be judged by the humanear to be particularly loud. Similarly, the human ear has been incapable of perceiving vibrations of afrequency much above 20,000 cycles per second, although many animals such as dog have been able todetect these sounds.In industry, increased mechanization results in increased noise levels. Operation of textile machinescarries a high risk of hearing loss. The evaluation of textile worker’s noise induced hearing loss was reportedelsewhere in the literature [4].
Health related effects are:
Respiratory modificationGastrointestinalEndocrine stimulationGalvanic skin resistance alterationPermanent or temporary hearing lossIncreased human annoyanceCommunication interference resulting in reduced worker’s efficiency
Noise Levels in Textile Machineries Yarn ProductionBecause of high spindle speeds reached on new machines (ring spindles up to 20000 rpm, rotor upto 110000 rpm) spinning mills can generally be assumed to generate a great deal of noise. Noise levels of 70 to 100 dB are commonly recorded in workrooms. Weaving and KnittingAlthough considerable progress has been made in the weaving sector over the last 20 years, thewhole area of noise nuisance and, closely associated with it, vibration coming from looms, cause major problems.Noise levels of 100 to 120 dB must be expected in weaving rooms, according to the design, type,fitting, erection and number of looms used, fabric structure, building type and size etc. The vibrationtransmitted from the running looms to the building can, under certain circumstances, cause a nuisance tothe local population and damage to nearby buildings, and to avoid this special vibration absorbers are nowprovided.However, permissible limit set up at 90 dB by Federal Standards of USA for maximum exposureduration of 8 hours per day. Typical values of noise level in textile machines are shown in Table I.
Table I. Noise level in Textile Industry (Texturizing, Spinning and Weaving)
Process Noise level (dB)Texturizing Plant:Filament take-up section 93.20Texturizing section 94.80Compressor house 99.50Spinning:Ring spinning 80Schubert Salzer Spincomet Rotor spinning (Individual) 84Schlafhorst Autocoro Rotor spinning(Individual)85Rieter M2/1 Rotor spinning(Individual)8620 Open End Rotor spinning i.e. 3840rotors in operation 100Two for one twister 100 -110Weaving 100 -120

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