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Published by Uttam Singh

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Published by: Uttam Singh on Jun 30, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Q.1 Explain the different types of communication withrelevant examples?
ans - Communication is the activity of conveying meaningfulinformation. Communication requires a sender, a message, and anintended recipient, although the receiver need not be present or aware of the sender's intent to communicate at the time of communication; thus communication can occur across vast distancesin time and space. Communication requires that the communicatingparties share an area of communicative commonality. Thecommunication process is complete once the receiver hasunderstood the sender.Nonverbal communicationNonverbal communication describes the process of conveyingmeaning in the form of non-word messages. Research shows that themajority of our communication is non verbal, also known as bodylanguage. some of non verbal communication includes gesture, bodylanguage or posture; facial expression and eye contact, objectcommunication such as clothing, hairstyles, architecture, symbolsinfographics, and tone of voice as well as through an aggregate of theabove. Non-verbal communication is also called silent language andplays a key role in human day to day life from employment relationsto romantic engagements.Speech also contains nonverbal elements known as paralanguage.These include voice quality, emotion and speaking style as well asprosodic features such as rhythm, intonation and stress. Likewise,written texts include nonverbal elements such as handwriting style,spatial arrangement of words and the use of emoticons to conveyemotional expressions in pictorial form.Visual communicationVisual communication is the conveyance of ideas and informationthrough creation of visual representations. Primarily associated withtwo dimensional images, it includes: signs, typography, drawing,graphic design, illustration, colours, and electronic resources, video
and TV. Recent research in the field has focused on web design andgraphically oriented usability. Graphic designers use methods of visual communication in their professional practice.Oral communicationOral communication, while primarily referring to spoken verbalcommunication, typically relies on both words, visual aids and non-verbal elements to support the conveyance of the meaning. Oralcommunication includes discussion, speeches, presentations,interpersonal communication and many other varieties. In face to facecommunication the body language and voice tonality plays asignificant role and may have a greater impact on the listener thanthe intended content of the spoken words.A great presenter must capture the attention of the audience andconnect with them. For example, out of two persons telling the same joke one may greatly amuse the audience due to his body languageand tone of voice while the second person, using exactly the samewords, bores and irritates the audience.[citation needed] Visual aidcan help to facilitate effective communication and is almost alwaysused in presentations for an audience.A widely cited and widely misinterpreted figure used to emphasize theimportance of delivery states that "communication comprise 55%body language, 38% tone of voice, 7% content of words", the so-called "7%-38%-55% rule".[2] This is not however what the citedresearch shows – rather, when conveying emotion, if body language,tone of voice, and words disagree, then body language and tone of voice will be believed more than words.[3][clarification needed] For example, a person saying "I'm delighted to meet you" whilemumbling, hunched over, and looking away will be interpreted asinsincere. (Further discussion at Albert Mehrabian: Three elements of communication.)'Written communication and its historical developmentOver time the forms of and ideas about communication have evolvedthrough progression of technology. Advances includecommunications psychology and media psychology; an emergingfield of study. Researchers divides the progression of written
communication into three revolutionary stages called "InformationCommunication Revolutions" (Source needed).During the 1st stage written communication first emerged through theuse of pictographs. The pictograms were made in stone, hencewritten communication was not yet mobile.During the 2nd stage writing began to appear on paper, papyrus,clay, wax, etc. Common alphabets were introduced and allowed for the uniformity of language across large distances. A leap intechnology occurred when the Gutenberg printing-press was inventedin the 15th century.The 3rd stage is characterised by the transfer of information throughcontrolled waves and electronic signals.Communication is thus a process by which meaning is assigned andconveyed in an attempt to create shared understanding. Thisprocess, which requires a vast repertoire of skills in interpersonalprocessing, listening, observing, speaking, questioning, analyzing,gestures, and evaluating enables collaboration and cooperation.[4]Barriers to successful communication include message overload(when a person receives too many messages at the same time), andmessage complexity.Misunderstandings can be anticipated and solved throughformulations, questions and answers, paraphrasing, examples, andstories of strategic talk. Written communication can be clear byplanning follow-up talk on critical written communication as part of thenormal way of doing business. Minutes spent talking now will savetime later having to clear up misunderstandings later on. Then, takewhat was heard and reiterate in your own words, and ask them if that’s what they meant.
Q.2 What are the general principles of writing especiallybusiness writing ?
ans - The purpose of a business report is to communicate informationto assist in the business decision making process. Some reportsmight propose solutions for business problems or might present

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