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Table Of Contents

1.1 LONG HAUL FIBER NETWORKS
1.2. fflSTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF ERBIUM-DOPED FffiER AMPLIFIERS
1.2 HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF ERBIUM-DOPED FIBER
1.3. FROM GLASS TO SYSTEMS - OUTLINE
1.3 FROM GLASS TO SYSTEMS - OUTLINE
2.1 INTRODUCTION
2.2 CONVENTIONAL COMMUNICATION FIBER
2.3 RARE EARTH DOPED FIBERS
2.3,1 Rare Earth Vapor Phase Delivery Methods
2.3.2 Rare Earth Solution-Doping Methods
2.3.3 Rod and Tube Methods
2.4. PUMP-SIGNAL INTERACTION METHODS 25
2.4 PUMP-SIGNAL INTERACTION METHODS
2.4J Evanescent Field
2,4.2 Double Clad Fiber Design
2.5 COMPOSITIONS
2.6 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
2.6.2 Strength and Reliability
2.6.3 Alternate Glass Host Fabrication
3.1 INTRODUCTION
3.2 FIBER CONNECTORS
3.3 FUSION SPLICING
3.4 PUMP AND SIGNAL COMBINERS
3.5 ISOLATORS
3.6 CIRCULATORS
3.7 FILTERS
3.8 FIBER GRATINGS
3.8.1 Introduction
3.8.2 Applications of Bragg Gratings
3.S3 Long Period Gratings
3.9. SIGNAL MULTIPLEXERS AND DEMULTIPLEXERS 61
3.9 SIGNAL MULTIPLEXERS AND DEMULTIPLEXERS
3.10 SIGNAL ADD/DROP COMPONENTS
3.11. DISPERSION COMPENSATION COMPONENTS 63
3.11 DISPERSION COMPENSATION COMPONENTS
3.12 INTEGRATED COMPONENTS
3.13 PUIMP LASERS
Rare Earth Ions - Introductory Survey
4.1 INTRODUCTION
4.2 ATOMIC PHYSICS OF THE RARE EARTHS
4.2.1 Introduction — The 4f Electron Shell
4.2.2 The 'Tuzzle'' of 4f Electron Optical Spectra
4.2.3 Semiempirical Atomic and Crystal—Field Hamiltonians
4.2.4 Energy Level Fitting
4.3. OPTICAL SPECTRA OF RARE EARTH IONS 95
4.3 OPTICAL SPECTRA OF RARE EARTH IONS
4.3.1 The Character of 4fN - 4fN Optical Transitions
4.3.2 Intensities of One-Photon Transitions — Judd-Ofelt Theory
4.4 FUNDAMENTAL PROPERTIES
4,4.1 Transition Cross Sections
4.4.2 Lifetimes
4.4.3 Linewidths and Broadening
4,5 SPECTROSCOPY OF THE ER^+ ION
4.5.1 Lifetimes
4.5.2 Er ~^ Spectra, Cross Sections, and Linewidths
5.1 INTRODUCTION
5.2 AMPLIFICATION IN THREE-LEVEL SYSTEMS - BASICS
5.2.1 Three-Level Rate Equations
5.2.2 The Overlap Factor
5.3 REDUCTION OF THE THREE-LEVEL SYSTEM TO THE
5.3.1 Validity of the Two-Level Approach
5.3.2 Generalized Rate Equations
5.4. AMPLIFIED SPONTANEOUS EMISSION 147
5.4 AMPLIFIED SPONTANEOUS EMISSION
5.5. ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS TO THE TWO-LEVEL SYSTEM 149
5.5 ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS TO THE TWO-LEVEL SYSTEM
6.1 INTRODUCTION
6.2 ABSORPTION AND EMISSION CROSS SECTIONS
6,3 GAIN AND ASE MODELING
6.3,1 Model Equations - Homogeneous Broadening
6.3.2 Average Inversion Relationship
6,3.3 Inhomogeneous Broadening
6.4 AMPLIFIER SIMULATIONS
6.4J Signal Gain, ASE Generation, and Population Inversion
6.4.4 Small Signal Spectral Gain and Noise Modeling
6.4.5 Saturation Modeling — Signal Gain and Noise Figure
6.4.6 Power Amplifier Modeling
6.4.7 Effective Parameter Modeling
6.5 TRANSVERSE MODE MODELS - ERBIUM CONFINEMENT
6.6 EXCITED-STATE ABSORPTION EFFECTS
6,6.1 Model Equations
6,6.2 Modeling Results in the Presence of ESA
6.6.3 800 nm Band Pumping
6.7.1 Upconversion Effects on Amplifier Performance
6.7.2 Pair Induced Quenching
7,2.1 Classical Derivation of Optical Amplifier Noise
7.2.3 Comparison of Optical Amplifier Devices
7.3 OPTICAL NOISE: SYSTEM ASPECTS
73.1 Receivers
7,3.2 Bit Error Rate Calculations - Direct Detection
7.3.3 Optical Preamplifiers - Noise Figure and Sensitivity
7.3.5 Noise in Optical Power Amplifiers
73.6 Nonlinearity Issues
7.3.7 Analog Applications
Amplifier Characterization and Design Issues
8.1 INTRODUCTION
8.2 BASIC AMPLIFIER MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES
8.2.1 Gain Measurements
8.2.2 Power Conversion Efficiency
8,2,3 Noise Figure Measurements
8.3 AMPLIFIER DESIGN ISSUES
8.3.1 Copropagating and Counterpropagating Pumping Issues
8.3,3 Multistage Amplifiers
8.3.4 Bidirectional Amplifiers
8.3.5 Power Amplifiers
8.3.6 WDM Amplifier Design Issues
8.3.7 Distributed Amplifiers
8.3,8 Waveguide Amplifiers
System Implementations of Amplifiers
9.1 INTRODUCTION
9.2 SYSTEM DEMONSTRATIONS AND ISSUES
9.2.1 Preamplifiers
9.2.2 Inline Amplifiers - Single Channel Transmission
9,2.3 Inline Amplifiers - WDM Transmission
9.2.4 Repeaterless Systems
9,2.5 Remote Pumping
9.2.6 Analog Applications
9,2,7 Gain Peaking and Self-Filtering
9.2.8 Polarization Issues
9.2.9 Transient Effects
9.3 SOLITON SYSTEMS
9.3.1 Principles
9.3.2 System Results and Milestones
10.1 INTRODUCTION
10.1.1 Gain in a Four-Level System
10.2.1 Introduction
10.2.2 Spectroscopic Properties
10.2.3 Gain Results for Pr^-doped Fiber Amplifiers
10.3 ND^+DOPED FIBER AMPLIFIERS
10.3.1 Introduction
Appendix A
A.1 OASIX® AMPLIFIER SIMULATION SOFTWARE
A.2 INTRODUCTION
A.2.1 System Requirements
A.2.2 Installing OASIX®
A,2.4 What to do next
A.3 A QUICK OVERVIEW AND TOUR
A.3.1 Fibers and Modeling Parameters
A.3.2 Saving a Simulation Configuration
AJ.3 Device Types Simulated
A.3.4 Data Entry and Device Conventions
A,3.5 Screens and Menus
A.3.6 Simulation Looping and Output Modes
A.4 SCREEN CONTENTS AND SIMULATION METHODOLOGY
A.4.1 Main/Entry Screen
A.4.2 Single-Stage Setup Screen
A.4.3 Additional Signals Screen
A.4.4 Output Setup Screen
A.4.5 Simulation Status Box
A.5 SIMULATION LOOPING STRUCTURE
A.5.1 Specifying Loop Parameters
A.5.2 Choosing Loop Order
A.5J Linear or Logarithmic Looping
A.5.4 Multiple Parameters Varied in a Loop
A.5.5 Influence on Output Format
A.5.6 Output Modes
A.6 SAMPLE SIMULATIONS
A.6.1 Single-Run, Single-Stage EDFA
A.7. COMPUTATION OF SIGNAL RELATED QUANTITIES 443
A.6.2 Multiple-Run, Single-Stage EDFA
A.6.3 Other simulations to try
A.7 COMPUTATION OF SIGNAL RELATED QUANTITIES
A.8 COMPUTATION OF ASE RELATED QUANTITIES
A.9 BASIC OPERATING PRINCIPLES
A.9J Simulation Speed and the Number of Waves
A,9.2 Causes and Remedies for Convergence Failure
A.10 COMMENT ON THE TREATMENT OF LOSSES
Index
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EDFA Fundamental and Application

EDFA Fundamental and Application

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Published by Vân Anh Phạm

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Published by: Vân Anh Phạm on Jun 30, 2011
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