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Weed and nitrogen management through inorganic and companion crops for drum-seeded wet rice

Weed and nitrogen management through inorganic and companion crops for drum-seeded wet rice

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Published by Grace Cañas
PestSci_04-091
PestSci_04-091

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: Grace Cañas on Jul 01, 2011
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02/16/2012

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Pest science and management
2011, Vol. 36
 
International Rice Research Notes
(0117-4185)
 
1
Weed and nitrogen management throughinorganic and companion crops for drum-seededwet rice
 
E. Subramanian, G. James Martin, D. Rajakumar, and R. Durai SinghDepartment of Agronomy, Agricultural College and Research Institute,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore 641003, India
 
Wet seeding is increasingly becoming important in present-day rice productionsystems as it saves time, labor, and energy; improves profitability; increasescropping intensity (through reduced turnaround); and avoids arduousoperations such as nursery preparation and transplanting (Subbaiah andBalasubramanian 2000). The transformation in crop establishment techniquefrom transplanted to wet seeded rice cultivation has resulted in a dramaticchange in the type and degree of weed infestation. In recent years, deteriorationin soil health due to application of chemical fertilizers alone necessitated the judicious combination of organic manure and inorganic fertilizer to improve soilfertility to sustain rice production. To address the problems of weed infestationand low nitrogen use efficiency, the present investigation was undertaken toidentify effective and feasible integrated weed and nitrogen managementpractices for drum-seeded wet rice.Field experiments were conducted during the 2002 kharif (wet season)and the 2002-03 rabi (monsoon season) at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University,Coimbatore (11°N latitude and 77°E longitude at 426.7 m altitude). Gross plotand net plot sizes were 4.8 m × 4.5 m and 4 m × 4 m, respectively. Soil was clayloam with pH 7.4, 0.58% organic C, and 196.3 kg N, 16.5 kg P, and 480.2 kg Kha
–1
.Rice seeds were soaked in water overnight and incubated for 24 h.Sprouted rice seeds of ADT44 (kharif) and Co 47 (rabi) were sown at 80 kg ha
–1
 using a drum seeder at a spacing of 20 cm onto puddled soil on 4 July 2002 and23 Oct. 2002. The companion crop, sesbania (
Sesbania aculeata
Poir), was sown at aseed rate of 15 kg ha
–1
at 2:1 (rice:sesbania) ratio. A dual crop of azolla (
 Azollamicrophylla
Kaulf) was inoculated 15 d after sowing (DAS) at 1.0 t ha
–1
. Sesbaniaand azolla were trampled into the soil using a cono weeder at 35 DAS.Recommended levels of N, P, and K at 150:50:50 kg ha
–1
were applied. Nitrogen100% (150 kg) and 75% (112.5 kg) were applied as per the treatments in fourequal splits (20 DAS, at active tillering, at panicle initiation, and at flowering); a
 
 
Pest science and management
2011, Vol. 36
 
International Rice Research Notes
(0117-4185)
 
2single dose of P as basal and K were applied along with N in four equal splits.The weed and N management treatments (see table) were arranged in a split-plotdesign with three replications. Weed samples were taken at 50 DAS in each plotat four randomly selected spots using a 0.25-m
2
quadrant. The samples wereoven-dried at 70 °C for 48 h, and the dry weight recorded. The common weedsfound were
Echinochloa colona
,
E. crus-galli
,
Cyperus difformis
,
C. iria
,
Fimbristylismiliacea
,
Eclipta alba
,
Ammannia baccifera
, and
Ludwigia parviflora
. Rice samplesfrom a 0.5-m
2
area were taken at harvest and the yield components recorded.Two hand weedings and pretilachlor plus safener followed by one handweeding were equally effective in reducing weed density and weed dry weight.The broad-spectrum weed control achieved with pretilachlor plus safener wasevident from the drastic reduction in weed density (45 seedlings m
–2
) and weeddry weight (27 g m
–2
). The control of weeds by pretilachlor plus safener followedby one hand weeding was comparable with two hand weedings in terms ofreduced weed density (38 seedlings m
–2
) and dry weight (24 g m
–2
) in both years.Better control of all categories of weeds from preemergence to crop-weedcompetition period (up to 60 d) of wet-seeded rice was achieved by pretilachlorplus safener followed by one hand weeding; the higher number of panicles (444and 436 m
–2
) resulted in higher grain yield (6.0 and 5.8 t ha
–1
) during bothseasons.Growing sesbania and azolla as companion crops, followed by mechanicalincorporation at the early stages (35 DAS), reduced weed density and dryweight. Higher fertilizer N (100%) along with organic sources (sesbania andazolla) enhanced the yield attributes of rice and consequently resulted in highergrain yield (5.8 t ha
–1
in the wet season and 5.5 t ha
–1
in the monsoon season).These indicate that intercropping and dual cropping practices could lead tomoderate weed suppression, resulting in higher nutrient uptake and higher drymatter production. The conoweeder incorporation of sesbania and azollaresulted in higher uptake of nutrients, which favored the rice crop, andsuppressed the weed species. Similar findings on the impact of sesbaniaintercropping in reducing weed density and dry weight were reported byRavisankar (2002), whereas Divakaran and Sundaram (1998) reported reducedweed density and dry weight from azolla dual cropping. These results imply thatthe integrated use of N using organic and inorganic sources produced moregrain yield than inorganic fertilizer alone. Preemergence application ofpretilachlor plus safener, followed by one hand weeding at 40 DAS, combinedwith 100% N + sesbania intercropping + azolla dual cropping could be aneffective integrated weed and N management practice for wet-seeded rice.
 
 
 
Pest science and management
2011, Vol. 36
 
International Rice Research Notes
(0117-4185)
 
3
References
Divakaran KR, Sundaram MD. 1998. Weed control efficiency of azolla in lowland rice ecosystem.Madras Agric. J. 85(2): 123-124.Ravisankar N. 2002. Efficacy of seeding methods,
in situ
incorporation of daincha and applicationtime of pretilachlor plus on weed management and productivity of wet seeded rice. PhDthesis, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, India.Subbaiah SV, Balasubramanian V. 2000. Rice situation in India: present status, future prospectsand challenges. In: Wet seeding of rice in India. Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad,India, and International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, Philippines. p 1-9.
 

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