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Table Of Contents

1 Introduction
1.1 Objective
1.2 Methodology
2 Technologies for Rural Energy Supply
2.1 Decentralised Electrification
2.1.1 Diesel Generating Sets
2.1.2 Renewable Energy Technologies
2.2 Hybrid System Technology
2.2.1 Relevance
2.2.2 Hybrid Systems in Developing Countries
Figure 2.1 Principle Circuit of Hybrid Systems
2.2.3 Other Hybrid Systems
2.2.4 Technical Aspects
3.1.1 Scenario Definitions
3.1.2 Modelling Assumptions
3.2 The Concept of Indicators of Sustainability
3.3 Developing an Indicator Set for Energy Technologies
Table 3.2 Criteria and Indicators for the Assessment of Energy Technologies
3.4 Analysis of Sustainability
3.4.1 Ecological Dimension
Figure 3.1 GEMIS Results: Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Figure 3.3 GEMIS Results: Emissions of Air Pollutants
3.4.2 Socio-Economic Dimension
3.4.3 Economic Dimension
Table 3.4 Main Assumptions for the Cost Analysis
3.5 Results and Discussion
3.5.1 Results
3.5.2 Discussion
4 Project Examples
4.1 Hybrid Systems in Indonesia
4.1.1 Baseline
4.1.2 Project Description
4.2 Hybrid Systems in Inner Mongolia
4.2.1 Baseline
4.2.2 Project Description
Table 4.1 Hybrid Systems in Inner Mongolia
4.2.3 Aspects of System Dissemination
5 Key success factors
5.1 Organisation
5.2 Financing
Figure 5.1 Hybrid Village Systems: Distribution Steps
5.3 Capacity Building
5.4 Technical Aspects
5.5 Assessment of Electricity Demand and Potential for Renewable Energies
5.6 Political Factors
6 Summary and Conclusions
Annex A: Electricity Demand and System Design
A.1 Calculation of Electricity Demand
A.2 System Design
Table A.4 Main Modelling Assumptions
Table A.5 Share of Technologies for Electricity Generation
B.1 Scenario Definitions
B.2 Modelling Results
Table B.1 Amount of Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Figure B.1 GEMIS Results: GHG Emissions
Figure B.2 GEMIS Results: Methane Emissions
Table B.2 Air Pollutants
Table B.3 Cumulative Energy Demand (Primary Energy)
Annex C: Analysis of Impacts
C.1 Ecology
C.2 Socio-Economic Issues
C.3 Economic Issues
Table C.1: Initial Investment Costs for Diesel Gensets
Annex D: Cost Analysis
Table D.1 Main Assumptions for the Cost Analysis
Table D.2 Investment Costs for Small-Scale Wind Power Plants
Table D.3 Investment Costs for Diesel Gensets
D.1 Investment Costs
Figure D.2 Specific Investment for Hybrid Systems of Different Capacities
D.2 Electricity Generating Costs
Table D.5 Electricity Generating Costs of PV/Diesel Systems [€/kWh]
Table D.6 Electricity Generating Costs of Wind/Diesel Systems [€/kWh]
Figure D.4 Illustration of Electricity Generating Costs for Wind/Diesel
Table D.7 Electricity Generating Costs PV/Wind
D.3 Electricity Generating Costs from Different Sources
Table D.9 Electricity Generating Costs of Hybrid Systems in Inner Mongolia
Table D.10 5 kW Hybrid Systems at Different Diesel Prices
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LWR_EX_04_26

LWR_EX_04_26

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Published by Edi Siswanto

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Published by: Edi Siswanto on Jul 01, 2011
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