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Meat Contamination

Meat Contamination

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Published by ALTAF HUSAIN

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Published by: ALTAF HUSAIN on Jul 01, 2011
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12/22/2012

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 ALTAF HUSAIN +923365167383
 
UAAR, RAWALPINDI, PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
 
MEAT CONTAMINATION
Meat 
The edible flesh of animals, especially that of mammals as opposed to that of fish or poultry.But in broader meanings it also includes the birds, fish and snails.
Contamination
The presence of extraneous, especially infectious, material that renders a substance orpreparation impure or harmful.
Meat contamination
As meat constitutes a main portion of the diet of most people in Pakistan, millions of animals are slaughtered and thousands of tons of meat are supplied daily to the market. Meat is ahighly nutritious edible portion of animals, and has a very high percentage of proteins (about 20%),fats (about 10%) and has very low concentrations of carbohydrates. Meat also has a highpercentage of water content, about 75%.All these factors make it very susceptible for microbial attack. It provides an idealenvironment for the growth of a wide range of microorganisms that include pathogenic bacteria
 
 
 ALTAF HUSAIN +923365167383
 
UAAR, RAWALPINDI, PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
 
such as Listeria monocytgenes, Clostridium perfrinenes, C. botulinum, E. coli and also Salmonella,Yersinia, Campylobacter and Pseudomonas, etc. These organisms can cause listeriosis, botulism,severe diarrhoea, vomiting, abdominal pain, fever, nausea and much more.Infected animal meat may also be a potential source of infectious, tumour and haemorrhagicviruses that may become active in non-permissive and common hosts. Cryptosporadium parasitesthat cause diarrhoea and nausea, and prions may also be present in the meat of the infectedanimals. Prions are small proteinaceous infectious particles that can transmit infectious diseasessuch as Mad Cow disease. Although the risk of transmission of Mad Cow disease through the foodchain is considered to be low, it is not zero. The transmission of this disease by the ingestion of contaminated meat has been documented.Meat spoilage organisms include bacteria such as Acinetobacter, Moraxella, Alcaligenes,Micrococci, and moulds and yeast, etc. Cooking of meat can destroy these spoilage and pathogenicorganisms but the occurrence of heat-resistant spores and the heat-resistant toxins of theseorganisms cannot be ruled out. The chance of survival of these organisms are particularly high insome partially cooked items, such as steaks and barbecue, in which the interior of the meat remainsuncooked.
Microbiological contamination in the meat processing chain
 
1.
 
Carcass
 
contamination
du
ring
 
sla
u
ghtering
Unavoidable keep as low as possible.
 2.
 
M
eat 
 
c
u
tting
No reduction of contamination possible, but further contamination should beprevented.
 
 
 
 ALTAF HUSAIN +923365167383
 
UAAR, RAWALPINDI, PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
 
3
.
 
Fu
rther
p
rocessing
No reduction of contamination possible, but prevent furthercontamination and create challenges / hurdles for microbial growth and survival (aw,preservatives).
 4.
 
H
eat 
 
treatment 
 
of 
 
final
p
ro
du
ct 
Pasteurization (approx. 80°C): Substantial reduction of contamination, but products need refrigeration. Sterilization (above 100°C): Totalelimination of contamination, products can be stored without refrigeration (in sealed foodcontainers).
 
Types of meat contamination
1.
 
Fresh meat contamination2.
 
Meat preparations contamination
3
.
 
Poultry meat contamination
Fresh meat contaminationQuantitative contamination
Slaughter
 
In general meat of a carcass is sterile just after slaughter. If the animal became stressed just before slaughter, the meat can be contaminated. Depending on the animal species, the number of germs can amount 10
3
/g in that case.During bad evisceration, bacteria can enter the intestines of the muscles and cause bonetaint (discolouration of the meat in the neighbourhood of the bone). Via the blood streamcontaminated knives can also contaminate the meat. But with good manufacturing practices duringslaughter only 1 bacteria /10-100 g meat is present.
 
Deskinning
 

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