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Language 4

Language 4

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Published by: Edith Ramos Palomino on Jul 01, 2011
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Teaching a foreign language has different characteristics depending among other factors, the method used,the purpose for which it is being taught, the stage or the social context is done, the means and resources thataccount, interests of students and teachers or the institution where they teach, the level of language required,the objectives of a specific curriculum and teacher preparation level.This article aims to make some reflections on the use of maternal language in the teaching of English.Teaching has presented very marked differences regarding the use or not of the Spanish language in Englishclasses. English is taught as a foreign language and the predominant use of the eclectic method with apreponderance of the techniques, exercises, strategies and objectives of the communicative approach. It is inthis scenario where the authors are valid reflections and insights they offer.Development.The use of maternal language in foreign language teaching has been a point of discussion since theemergence of the methodology of language teaching. Discard a method, it takes another, and each of them isa different view on this topic. Some rely heavily on the language and rely on her and others completelyoutlawed. For example, Stern writes on the side approach to comparative linguistics and asks: "Side paidattention to the concept of difficulty in language learning ... As an individual tends to transfer the characteristicsof their maternal language to foreign language, a comparative study would be useful in identifying thesimilarities and differences between languages"Previously, the same author, in an analysis of methods and approaches used in teaching a foreign languagearose in the grammar-translation method (grammar-translation method) "... the memorization of rules and factsrelated to the meanings of the first language through the massive practice of translation ", is the essence of themethod. On the other hand, refers to another method, the direct method (direct method) that "is characterizedmainly by the use of language is learned as a medium of instruction and communication in the languageclassroom and avoid use of language and technical translation".In reviewing the literature on the topic are considerable arguments about the use or non-native language inteaching a foreign language. Abbot, in connection with the English language, says that students "can learn much about their own languageas a result of mental comparisons with English." The authors have seen this assertion with his own students,in sometimes have noted Spanish characteristics of those who were not aware. For example, the use of twoverbs in Spanish (ser and estar) to fulfill the role that English language only gives a verb (to be). Native
Spanish speakers use these two verbs correctly, accurately and automatically as they have "acquired" thatability in the normal development of language.In many cases, it is only through the study of English to realize the difference in meaning of these two verbs.Would you say being in the presence of a case in which one learns about through learning?Widdowson, seems to favor the use of mother tongue in language teaching. He proposes the scheme-to-Discourse Discourse which is based on 3 principles, the principle of rational appeal, the principle of integrationand the principle of control. When explaining the first principle states the following: "... language learnersshould be aware of what they are doing when performing language tasks, should be guided to recognize thatthese tasks relate to how they use their own language for the achievement of genuine communication. Thisprinciple naturally leads to the association of the language is learned is already known and use of language for the exploration and extension of their knowledge. "This author suggests exercises "instead of illocutionary acts or speech acts operating in the acts of theindividual, which makes call students' attention to the way in which these events differ in their realization in 2languages ".It is important to note that at times some exercises in the textbooks of the students have instructions toperform them are given in a language level higher than students have. If you want the students to performproperly, it is advisable to give instructions on what to allow compliance with the objective of the exercise in aproper way. Similarly, the student should be allowed to use their own language to ask for some clarification onthe language aspect that should be familiar with.Bolitho, states that "at times in language teaching you have to allow students to say what they mean, and if they do that, you're going to have to let them use their mother tongue at times."Whorf quotes Clark6 who "believes that different languages impose different worldviews in their speakers andto learn a new language involves a new conceptual framework." At this point, there is the light of experience, that learning a language is not simply changing the labels fromone language to another. It is book which said book or change the word house to house or maison. In thisregard, Widdowson4 states that "knowledge of a language means not only knowledge of the rules thatgenerate an infinite number of sentences, but the knowledge of the rules governing the use of prayers for appropriate addresses," and to generate proper addresses, adding that more than a simple change of labels.Take for example the word lunch in Spanish. When spoken, heard or read, have a different implication for different Spanish speakers. Lunch does not mean the same to a Cuban for an Argentine or a native of  Andalusia in Spain. And this happens within the framework of a common language. This word will evokedifferent experiences in each of the speakers mentioned, according to their own experiences and culture, timeto do it, you eat food, where is, and so on. So what would be the result of simply teaching that lunch in Spanishis to Have lunch déjeuner in English or in French?One of the most significant arguments against the use of language is that it is responsible for a series of errors, so-called interlingual causes of errors or external interference or negative language transfer. On this,Clark said: "If we try to apply the stimulus-response theory to the problem of translation, we become entangledin a web of conflicting arguments. For example, we argue that learning to produce words in a new languagethe student acquires an additional set of responses to stimuli that originally caused only answers in thelanguage. Two sets of answers to the same stimuli must be kept distinct if it is to not interfere with each other.This seems to be the argument which has influenced those opposed to the use of language in the classroom.However, one could also argue that when the subject is learning the meaning of words in the new language,language can be very useful. "
It is clear that some errors may occur due to the transfer of expressions or structures of language, whichsupports the idea already expressed that learning a language is not just simply changing the labels.It is very common to hear phrases like In This Moment (literal translation of the Spanish phrase at this point)instead of now or phrase at the moment that would be correct to express this meaning in English. I have aDoubt is another commonly heard phrases in students to express the idea of having a question, rather I have aquestion about ... or I have a problem with ... that would be appropriate sentences for same purpose inEnglish.Krashen in his theory of 'monitor model' (monitor model theory) no room to use the maternal language of students in the classroom. However, states that teachers "need to provide students with tools to help you getmore input (input)." So why deny the use of language to make the "input" is more complete and clear? After having discussed some considerations and arguments for and against the use of mother tongue in thelanguage classroom, it requires some comments.The authors' experience in teaching English as a foreign language can argue that either extreme is dangerous.The use of mother tongue in the classroom has its space and time. It is a tool that properly used, can bepowerful and useful. There are situations where the use of the student's native language does provide a greathelp. Could the explanation of difficult terms, facilitate the understanding of instructions for a particular activity,especially in the early stages of learning or to contrast differences and similarities between the mother tongueand a foreign language.English teachers whose mother tongue is that language can say that the use of language, has given excellentresults for the explanation of grammatical similarities of what is called in English the present perfect and pastperfect. These are very similar grammatical structures in both languages, just be careful because its use doesnot always coincide. It has also been very helpful in clarifying the meaning of vocabulary related to the abstractand some forms of collocation. In addition, allowing the student to use their mother tongue language to clarifycertain points will lead to greater confidence between the student and teacher. The language is an invaluabletool when used wisely and rationally.In the example, state of the art technology, literally "state of the art technology" in Spanish is referred to astechnology. It's more reliable to explain this statement by telling the students the equivalent there of in their native language to get into complicated explanations in English. This makes clear the road to understanding.Other examples occur when English is taught for specific purposes, in medicine, for example, the phrase bloodfilm (literally "blood film") blood thinner (literally "blood tuner") for what in Spanish we use the wordanticoagulant, sitz bath, sitz bath, stillborn, born dead. It is advisable to tell the meaning of these words inSpanish, since it provides compression, also saving time on explanations of difficult terms and complicated. Although Atkinson suggests limited use and careful mother tongue in foreign language classes. It also raisesthat can be used for translation as a technique in teaching and in relation to this Widdowson said that

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