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Table Of Contents

Keeping Up
Rules to Abide By
Grading
Important Dates
Evaluation (tentative)
What You Should Know
Regular Sets # 1
Regular Sets # 2
Regular Sets # 3
Context Free # 1
Context Free # 2
Context Free # 3
Assignment # 1
History
Hilbert
Hilbert’s Belief
Gödel
Turing (Post, Church, Kleene)
More on Emil Post
Effective Procedure
Algorithm
Sets, Problems & Predicates
How They relate
Immediate Implications
Existence of Undecidables
The Need for Divergence
Bounded Iteration
Hilbert’s Tenth
Useful Macros # 1
Useful Macros # 2
Useful Macros # 3
Addition by SProgram
Subtraction
Limited Subtraction
Alternative Version
Register Machines
Register Machine Concepts
Register Instructions
Addition by RM
Limited Subtraction by RM
Factor Replacement Systems
Factor Replacement Concepts
Addition by FRS
Limited Subtraction by FRS
Ordering of Rules
Why Deterministic?
More on Determinism
Systems Related to FRS
Petri Net Operation
Petri Net Computation
Variants of Petri Nets
Petri Net Example
Vector Addition
Vectors as Resource Models
Factors with Residues
AbelianSemi-Group
Finitely Presented
Assignment # 2
Recursive Functions
Primitive Recursive
Basis of PRFs
Building New Functions
Addition & Multiplication
Basic Arithmetic
2nd Grade Arithmetic
Basic Relations
Basic Boolean Operations
Definition by Cases
Bounded Minimization 1
Bounded Minimization 2
Intermediate Arithmetic
Primality
Exponents
Pairing Functions
Assignment # 3
μRecursive
μRecursive Concepts
Ackermann’s Function
Union/Find
The μOperator
Turing Machines
Basic Description
Base Machines
Useful Composite Machines
Commentary on Machines
Computing with TMs
Addition by TM
Turing Machine Variations
Computational Complexity
P = Polynomial Time
NP = Non-Det. Poly Time
NP-Complete; NP-Hard
SAT
Simulating ND TM
Cook’s Theorem
Equivalence of Models
S-Machine ≡REGISTER
SProgram ≤Reg. Machine
Reg. Machine ≤SProgram
Proving Equivalence
Instantaneous Descriptions
id Definitions
Equivalence Steps
Completion of S-P ≤RM
Completion of RM ≤S-P
All Models are Equivalent
REGISTER ≤FACTOR
Encoding a RM’sState
Simulation by FRS
Importance of Order
Example of Order
Subtraction Encoding
Analysis of Problem
FACTOR ≤RECURSIVE
Universal Machine
Encoding FRS
Simulation by Recursive # 1
Simulation by Recursive # 2
Simulation by Recursive # 3
Simplicity of Universal
RECURSIVE ≤TURING
Standard Turing Computation
More Helpers
Basic Functions
Closure Under Composition
Closure Under Minimization
Assignment # 4
Undecidability
Undecidability Precursor
Halting Problem
The Contradiction
Additional Notations
Universal Machine Mapping
SNAP and TERM
STP Predicate
Recursively Enumerable
Definition of re
Semi-Decidable Implies re
re Implies Semi-Decidable
Domain of a Procedure
Recursive Implies re
Related Results
Enumeration Theorem
The Set K
K is not Recursive
re Characterizations
S-m-n Theorem
Parameter (S-m-n) Theorem
S-m-nfor FRS
Details of S-m-nfor FRS
Quantification#1
Quantification#2
Diagonalizationand Reducibility
Non-re Problems
The Set TOT
Quantification#3
Reduction Concepts
Reduction Example
Classic Undecidable Sets
Lneis re
Lneis Non-Recursive
Lneis re by Quantification
Le is not re
Exam#1 Review
Sample Question#1
Sample Question#2
Sample Question#3
Sample Question#4
Sample Question#5
Sample Question#6
Sample Question#7
Sample Question#8
Sample Question#9
Sample Question#10
Reduction and Equivalence
Many-One Reduction
Many-One Degrees
One-One Reduction
One-One Degrees
Turing (Oracle) Reduction
Turing Degrees
Complete re Sets
The Set Halt = K0= Lu
Reduction and Rice’s
Two Interesting Sets
Lris Non-RE
LrPicture Proof
Lnris Non-re
Either Trivial or Undecidable
Rice’s Theorem
Rice’s Picture Proof
Corollaries to Rice’s
Assignment # 5
Finitely Presented Monoids
AbelianMonoids
ThueSystems
Semi-ThueSystems
Word Problems
Post Canonical Systems
Examples of Canonical Forms
Simplified Canonical Forms
Examples of Post Systems
Simulating Turing Machines
Details of Halt(TM) ≤Word(ST)
Semi-ThueWord Problem
Assignment # 6
Formal Language Review
Closure Properties
Non-Closure
Grammars and re Sets
Formal Language
PCP Example#2
Ambiguity of CFG
Intersection of CFLs
CSG Produces Something
Assignment # 7
Traces (Valid Computations)
Traces of FRS
Intersection Continued
Quotients of CFLs
Finish Quotient
Traces and Type 0
CSG and Undecidability
Some Consequences
Summary of Grammar Results
Decidability
More Undecidability
Simple Operators
K-insertion
Iterated Insertion
Shuffle
More Shuffles
Crossover
Who Cares?
Some Known Results
More Known Stuff
Finite Convergence
Finite Power of CFG
1981 Results
Proof #1
Subsuming •
L = L ⊕L ?
Proof #2
Exam#2 Review
Material
Sample Exam#2 Q1
Sample Exam#2 Q2
Sample Exam#2 Q3
Sample Exam#2 Q4
Sample Exam#2 Q5
Sample Exam#2 Q6a,b
Sample Exam#2 Q6c
Term Rewriting
Types of Rewriting
Term Rewriting Systems
TRS (Ackerman’s Function)
Process
Sort by Rewriting
Example Sort
Simplification
Differentiation
Canonical Systems
Lindenmayer systems
What are L-systems?
The first L-system?
Turtle Interpretation
Koch island
Branching structures
Interpretation
Generations of a Single Tree
Tree LOD
Bibliography
Halting vsMortality
Finite vsInfinite?
Turing Machine Real-Time Set
Analyzing with Quantifiers
Immortality Problem
Infinite Configurations
Hooper’s Result
Mortal and RT
Mortal and RT (continued)
Consequences
1981, Again
L for Machine M
Finite Power Property
Another View of Finite Power
The Magic R and L
References
Propositional Calculus
Tautology and Satisfiability
Proving Consequences
Some Undecidables
Refutation
Resolution
Axioms
Simulating Machines
DiadicPIPC
The Rest of the Story
First Order Predicate Calculus
First Order Primitive Symbols
First Order Terms
Substitution
Inference (Deduction)
First Order Theories
Restricted Forms
Reduction Classes
Sketch of Proof
General Idea
Inductive Steps
Final Exam Topics
Exclusions
Inclusions (Guarantees)
Guarantees –More
Sample#1
Sample#2
Sample#3
Sample#4
Sample#5
Sample#6
Sample Question#11
Sample Question#12
Sample Question#13
Sample#14
Sample#15
Sample#16
Extra Promises
Fibonacci Numbers
Variant of Koch Curve
Recursion Theorem
Simple Form
Fixed Point Theorem
The Fixed Point Theorem
Classifying Unsolvable Problems
Rice-Shapiro Theorem
Using Extended Rice
RE Sets
Minimum Quantification
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Cot 5310 Notes

Cot 5310 Notes

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