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A Manual Backpack-type Sprayer Space treatment against mosquitoes using a thermal fogger
refers to the practical way in whichpesticides, (includingherbicides,fungicides,insecticides,
or nematodecontrol agents) are delivered to their
pestorganism,cropor other plant). Public concern
about the use of pesticides has high-lighted the need to make this process as efficient as possible,in order to minimise their release into the environment and human exposure (including operators, bystanders and consumers of produce)
. The practiceof pest management by the rational application of pesticides is supremelymulti-disciplinary, combining many aspectsof biologyandchemistrywith:agronomy,engineering,meteorology,socio-economicsandpublic health, together with newer
disciplines such asbiotechnologyandinformation science.
Seed treatmentscan achieve exceptionally high efficiencies, in terms of effective dose-transfer to a crop. Pesticides are appliedto the seed prior to planting, in the form of a seed treatment, or coating, to protect against soil-borne risks to the plant;additionally, these coatings can provide supplemental chemicals andnutrientsdesigned to encourage growth. A typical seedcoating can include a nutrient layer²containingnitrogen,phosphorus, andpotassium, arhizobiallayer²
containingsymbiotic bacteriaand other beneficialmicroorganisms, and a fungicide (or other chemical) layer to make the seed
less vulnerable to pests.
One of the more common forms of pesticide application, especially in conventional agriculture, is the use of mechanicalsprayers. Hydraulic sprayers consists of atank, apump, a lance (for single nozzles) or boom, and a nozzle (or
multiple nozzles). Sprayers convert apesticide formulation, often containing a mixture of water (or another liquid chemical