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Pesticide Application

Pesticide Application

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11/25/2013

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Pesticide application
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 A Manual Backpack-type Sprayer Space treatment against mosquitoes using a thermal fogger 
Pesticide application
refers to the practical way in whichpesticides, (includingherbicides,fungicides,insecticides, or nematodecontrol agents) are delivered to their 
biological targets
(
e.g.
 pestorganism,cropor other plant). Public concern about the use of pesticides has high-lighted the need to make this process as efficient as possible,in order to minimise their release into the environment and human exposure (including operators, bystanders and consumers of produce)
[1]
. The practiceof pest management by the rational application of pesticides is supremelymulti-disciplinary, combining many aspectsof biologyandchemistrywith:agronomy,engineering,meteorology,socio-economicsandpublic health, together with newer  disciplines such asbiotechnologyandinformation science. [edit]
Seed Treatments
Seed treatmentscan achieve exceptionally high efficiencies, in terms of effective dose-transfer to a crop. Pesticides are appliedto the seed prior to planting, in the form of a seed treatment, or coating, to protect against soil-borne risks to the plant;additionally, these coatings can provide supplemental chemicals andnutrientsdesigned to encourage growth. A typical seedcoating can include a nutrient layer²containingnitrogen,phosphorus, andpotassium, arhizobiallayer² containingsymbiotic bacteriaand other beneficialmicroorganisms, and a fungicide (or other chemical) layer to make the seed less vulnerable to pests.
[2]
.[edit]
Spray application
One of the more common forms of pesticide application, especially in conventional agriculture, is the use of mechanicalsprayers. Hydraulic sprayers consists of atank, apump, a lance (for single nozzles) or boom, and a nozzle (or  multiple nozzles). Sprayers convert apesticide formulation, often containing a mixture of water (or another liquid chemical
 
carrier, such as fertilizer) and chemical, into droplets, which can be large rain-type drops or tiny almost-invisible particles. Thisconversion is accomplished by forcing the spray mixture through aspray nozzleunder pressure. The size of droplets can bealtered through the use of different nozzle sizes, or by altering the pressure under which it is forced, or a combination of both.Large droplets have the advantage of being less susceptible tospray drift, but require more water per unit of land covered.Small droplets are able to static electricity to maximize contact with a target organism, but require very still wind conditions.[edit]
S
praying Pre- and Post-emergent Crops
Large Self-Propelled agricultural 'Floater' Sprayer, engaged in pre-emergent pesticide applicationSelf-Propelled Row-crop Sprayer applying pesticide to post-emergent corn
Traditional agricultural crop pesticides can either be applied pre-emergent or post-emergent, a term referring tothegerminationstatus of the plant.Pre-emergentpesticide application, inconventional agriculture, attempts to reduce competitive pressure on newly germinated plants by removing undesirable organisms and maximizing the amount of water, soilnutrients, and sunlight available for the crop. An example of pre-emergent pesticide application isatrazineapplication for corn. Similarly,glyphosatemixtures are often applied pre-emergent on agricultural fields to remove early-germinating weeds andprepare for subsequent crops. Pre-emergent application equipment often has large, wide tires designed to float on soft soil,minimizing both soil compaction and damage to planted (but not yet emerged) crops. A three-wheel application machine, suchas the one pictured on the right, is designed so that tires do not follow the same path, minimizing the creation of ruts in the fieldand limiting sub-soil damage.Post-emergent pesticide application requires the use of specific chemicals chosen minimize harm to the desirable targetorganism. An example is2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, which will injurebroadleaf  weeds(dicots) but leave behindgrasses(monocots). Such a chemical has been used extensively onwheatcrops, for example. A number of companies have also created genetically-modified organisms that are resistant to various pesticides. Examples includeglyphosate-resistant soybeansandBt maize, which change the types of formulations involved in addressing post-emergent pesticide pressure. It is important to also note that even given appropriate chemical choices, high ambient temperatures or other environmental influences, can allow the non-targeted desirable organism to be damaged during application. As plants havealready germinated, post-emergent pesticide application necessitates limited field contact in order to minimize losses due to
 
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[5]
 [
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.

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