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As Biology Unit 2 Topic 4 Notes Study Revision Guide Summary Edexcel Biodiversity Plant Cell Organelles

As Biology Unit 2 Topic 4 Notes Study Revision Guide Summary Edexcel Biodiversity Plant Cell Organelles

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Plant Structure:
Structure of a typicalplant cell:-Has many futures in common with an animal cell.-Same basic chemical make-up of cell membranes.-Similar properties.-Control movement of substances in a similar way.
1) The Plant Cell Wall:
-It is the
tough outer layer around
plant cells.-Causes plant cells to appear more
regular
and
uniform
, than animal cells, in their appearance.-Gives plants
strength and support
.-Made up mainly of cellulose (similar to complex carbs such as starch and glycogen), which is
composed of long chains of glucose joined by glycosidic bonds.
-Glucose comes in two different forms
due to different arrangement of atoms
on the sidechains of the molecule.-The different isomers form
different bonds
between neighbouring glucose molecules which
affects the polymers they form
.-In starch, the monomer units are a-glucose.-In cellulose, the monomer units are
b-glucose
held together by
1,4 glycosidic bonds
whereone of the
monomer units has to be turned
around so that bonding can take place.-The linking of b-glucose molecules means that the
hydroxyl groups stick out on both sidesof the molecule
.-This means
hydrogen bonds can form between the partially positively chargedhydrogen atoms of the hydroxyl groups and the partially negatively charged oxygenatoms elsewhere in the molecule
.-This is known as
cross-linking
and
holds neighbouring chains firmly together
.-
Many hydrogen bonds
form making cellulose a material with
considerable strength
.
 
-Cellulose molecules
do not coil or spiral
– they remain as
very long, straight chains
.-In contrast,
starch forms compact globular structures
that are
useful for storage
.-This difference between starch and cellulose gives them
very different properties
.-Starch is an important source of 
energy
in the diet for many animals.-Most animals do not possess the enzyme needed to break the 1,4 glycosidic bonds between themolecule of b-glucose and
can therefore not digest cellulose
.-Cellulose in plant food is what
acts as roughage or fibre
in the human diet.-However, some animals may possess the enzymes needed to digest cellulose.-In the cell wall, groups of 10-100,000 cellulose molecules form
microfibrils
.-These can be seen under electron microscopes.-These
cellulose fibrils are laid down in layers held together by a matrix
(surroundingsubstance)
of hemicelluloses and other short-chain carbohydrates that act as a kind of glue binding to each other and to the cellulose molecules
.-
Affects
the
strength
of the cell wall.-Sugars involved include
mannose, xylose and arabinose
.-The
combination
of the cellulose microfibrils in the flexible matrix
makes a compositematerial
,
combining
the
properties
of both the materials into the plant cell wall.-The cells are
firm
(
turgid
) most of the time, giving the strength to
support the plant in avertical position
.-The plant can
wilt when in shortage of water
becoming flaccid.-The microfibrils are arranged in
spirals
around the cell wall (individual cellulose molecules donot spiral).-The
more vertical
the spirals, the
closer
the
turns
and the
stronger
the
structure
 
of 
the
cell
in the vertical direction.-Strength needed to
act against gravity
pulling plant down.-Cell wall is usually
permeable
to everything dissolved in water.-The cell wall, however, can become
impregnated with suberin
(waxy,
waterproof 
compound) or with
lignin
to
produce wood
.-These compounds
affect permeability
of the wall.
 
-The plant cell wall consists of several layers.
Middle Lamella:
-
First layer
of plant cell wall to be formedduring cell division.-
Made largely of pectin
(polysaccharide which
acts like glue
and
holds the cell walls of neighbouring plant cells together
).-Pectin has lots of 
negative carboxyl groups
and these
combine with positive calcium ionsto form calcium pectate
.-This
binds to the cellulose that forms on either side
.-The cellulose microfibrils and the matrix build up on
either side
of the middle lamella.-These walls are very
flexible
, with the cellulose microfibrils oriented in a similar direction.-They are known as
primary cell walls
and as the plant ages
secondary thickening may take
place giving rise to a
secondary cell wall
.-Cellulose microfibrils are
laid densely at different angles
to each other.-This makes the composite material much
more rigid
with hemicelluloses
further hardening
it.-In some plant, lignin is added to the cell walls to produce wood which makes the structure even
more
rigid.

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