. International Scenario:
The total world production is estimated to be about 63 million tonnes which amounts to about 16% of total fruit production. It is only next to citrus and bananas and followed by apples (Annexure-I). Themajor world producers are Italy, France, Spain, U.S.A, Turkey, Argentina, Iran, Portugal, South Africaand Chile (Annexure-II). The compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) from 1990 to 2001 was -0.78% for area expansion and 0.74% for production for the world as a whole. During the same periodthe CAGR for both area expansion and production were high in China, India, Australia, Egypt, Chile,Iran, and USA, whereas these were negative to low in traditionally important countries, such as Italy,Spain, France, Germany, Greece and Turkey(Fig.1)Unlike in India, 70% of the world grape production is used for wine making. However, in Turkey,Italy, Chile, Argentina, Brazil and U.S.A., considerable quantity of grape is also used for tablepurposes and making raisin. About 20% of the table grape production is exported as compared to 9% export of other fruits. Themajor exporters are Chile, Italy, Spain, USA, etc. (Annexure-III). World trade in grapes hasincreased from 1 million tonnes in 1980 to more than 2.7 million tonnes in 2000. Chile accounted for almost half of the growth in export of grape by increasing its exports from 49,600 tonnes in 1980 to6,76,474 tonnes in 2000. The countries which are emerging as major exporters, besides Chile, areSouth Africa, Argentina, Brazil and Australia. These countries increased their share in the worldexports during the off-season in the USA and European Unions. Mexico, India and Hongkong havealso emerged as grape exporters. During the period from 1993 to 2000 the CAGR for the export of grape in the world was 4.55%. The countries which had high CAGR during the same period includedChina, Hong Kong SAR, Mexico, Turkey, Chile, Argentina, Australia, Netherlands, Syria, Germany,Lebanan and South Africa and the countries with low to negative CAGR included Italy, France, India,Spain and Brazil(Fig.2). The growth in international trade of grapes was encouraged by the followingfactors :
Development of new varieties enabling extension of marketing season.
Application of post harvest technology .
Large investment in marketing infrastructure.
Adoption of quality control measures right from planting to export.The main export markets for grape are USA and Europe. The size of European market is more than1 million tonne. The South East Asia , Japan and also Middle East to some extent are other important markets.( Fig-3)
. Grape Export from India:
The grape export from India started in the year 1991 with the initiation of economic liberalisation.Total export is about 20,646 tonne, which amounts to only 2% of total production. The importers of Indian grapes are UK, Netherlands, Germany, USA, UAE, Saudi Arabia, Quatar, Oman, Bahrain, SriLanka, Bangla Desh, Mauritius, Singapore and Hongkong. However, our export to the Middle Eastaccounts for 90% of the export while 8% is accounted by European countries and the rest by theSouth East Asian countries.