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Area Development Project on Grape

Area Development Project on Grape

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Published by Prashant Gurjar

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Published by: Prashant Gurjar on Jul 02, 2011
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Area Development Project on Grape
in the Agri-Export Zone of Maharashtra
1. Concept of Area Development Project (ADP)
 The concept of Area Development Project (ADP) is based on integration of all the upstream anddownstream activities relating to production, processing and marketing. The ADPs are preparedtaking into account the potential of identified areas, development of infrastructure facilities,government programmes and analysis of the domestic and international scenario for development of the identified product. NABARD has been emphasising the need for identification, formulation andimplementation of Area Development Projects (ADPs) for sometime past. Though our RegionalOffices (ROs) have taken initiative to formulate a good number of ADPs, the perusal of the progressreports indicates that they are mostly of traditional and routine nature. In addition, they are lackingbackward and forward linkages and are financed under Automatic Refinance Facility(ARF). They areusually small and do not take into account the developments that have already taken place throughthe efforts of NABARD/Government and State Government agencies. Overall, it appears that thepreparation and implementation of ADP is yet to gather sufficient momentum in the activities of our ROs. They are yet to have significant impact on the development of the identified regions. In theabove background, Investment Credit Department (ICD), NABARD, HO identified grape for formualtion of an integrated ADP.
2. Agri-Export Zones:
 The Central Government has announced the scheme for establishment of Agri-Export Zones (AEZ)inthe country under the Exim policy. AEZ scheme comprises identification of product specific,geographically contiguous areas for the purpose of developing and sourcing of the raw materials,their processing/packaging leading to final exports. State Governments will identify potential exportproducts which could be selected for development. Grape has been identified for development under the scheme. The ADP on grape prepared by NABARD will lead to projectisation of grapedevelopment activities with bank finance in the AEZ of Maharashtra.
3. Identification of Project - Justification:
Production of grape in India falls behind a number of other fruit crops viz. mango, banana, citrus,apple, papaya and guava. It accounts for only 0.02% of total fruit production. Its cultivation in Indiastarted quite late as compared to other fruit crops. Till 4-5 decades ago, its cultivation wasconsidered as non-viable, specially in the tropical areas. However, during the period from 1987-88 to1999-2000, the area under grape has increased from 15,000 ha. to 44,000 ha. and the productionfrom 2.5 lakh tonnes to 11 lakh tonnes. The highest world productivity of 100 tonnes grape per ha.has been recorded in the tropical region of the country. It is now being cultivated in all the 3 major climatic conditions - temperate, sub-tropical and tropical.Grape has a number of uses such as table grapes, wine, raisin, grape juice and canned grape.However, in India, 90% of the grape is used for table purpose. The rest of the grape is used mostlyfor raisin. The other uses of grape are very little in India.The special reasons for identification of grape are as under :
During the period from 1991 to 92 to 1999-2000, the increase in production of grape hasshown annual compounded growth rate of 13.36% in Maharashtra.
Among all the fruit crops, grape has emerged as the most successful commercial crop in therecent years.
About 2% of the grape produced in India is exported successfully to Europe, USA, MiddleEast and South East Asian countries, as against 0.10% of all fruits.
India's productivity of grape at 25 tonnes/ha. is the highest in the world.
The quality of grape grown in India is comparable with the best in the world, since Thompsonseedless variety of grape accepted throughout the world for its high quality has been highlysuccessful in Nashik and adjoining districts and more recently in certain districts of Karnatakaand Andhra Pradesh. A few mutant varieties of Thompson seedless of similar quality, suchas Sonaka, Tas-e-Ganesh and Sharad seedless have been developed in India.
Besides use of grape as fresh fruit, it could be processed to value added products such ascanned grapes, raisin, juice and wine. The by-products from processed grapes such astartaric acid, which has industrial use, can also be developed.
Grape of India is highly competitive in the international market because of its highproductivity, good quality and also lower cost of production (being very labour intensive crop).
Investment requirement is much higher for grape than any other crop, the unit cost beingRs.3.64 lakh per ha. ( in Maharashtra) for high density plantation, which necessitatesinstitutional finance.
Scientific pre-harvest and post-harvest management practices such as drip irrigation, training/ pruning, pest management, application of growth regulators, pre-cooling, cold storage,reefer transportation including packaging and processing are gaining ground in India, whichall require high investment.
Grape is perhaps the only crop in India which is not usually grown by any farmer withoutrecourse to bank credit. During 2000-01, NABARD disbursed Rs.47.04 crore of refinanceassistance for grape, which constituted 19% of total disbursement of Plantation & Horticulturesector (246 crore) and about 40% of disbursement under horticulture alone. The share of Maharashtra was Rs.33.35 crore i.e. 71% of total refinance disbursed under grape in thecountry.
. International Scenario:
 The total world production is estimated to be about 63 million tonnes which amounts to about 16% of total fruit production. It is only next to citrus and bananas and followed by apples (Annexure-I). Themajor world producers are Italy, France, Spain, U.S.A, Turkey, Argentina, Iran, Portugal, South Africaand Chile (Annexure-II). The compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) from 1990 to 2001 was -0.78% for area expansion and 0.74% for production for the world as a whole. During the same periodthe CAGR for both area expansion and production were high in China, India, Australia, Egypt, Chile,Iran, and USA, whereas these were negative to low in traditionally important countries, such as Italy,Spain, France, Germany, Greece and Turkey(Fig.1)Unlike in India, 70% of the world grape production is used for wine making. However, in Turkey,Italy, Chile, Argentina, Brazil and U.S.A., considerable quantity of grape is also used for tablepurposes and making raisin. About 20% of the table grape production is exported as compared to 9% export of other fruits. Themajor exporters are Chile, Italy, Spain, USA, etc. (Annexure-III). World trade in grapes hasincreased from 1 million tonnes in 1980 to more than 2.7 million tonnes in 2000. Chile accounted for almost half of the growth in export of grape by increasing its exports from 49,600 tonnes in 1980 to6,76,474 tonnes in 2000. The countries which are emerging as major exporters, besides Chile, areSouth Africa, Argentina, Brazil and Australia. These countries increased their share in the worldexports during the off-season in the USA and European Unions. Mexico, India and Hongkong havealso emerged as grape exporters. During the period from 1993 to 2000 the CAGR for the export of grape in the world was 4.55%. The countries which had high CAGR during the same period includedChina, Hong Kong SAR, Mexico, Turkey, Chile, Argentina, Australia, Netherlands, Syria, Germany,Lebanan and South Africa and the countries with low to negative CAGR included Italy, France, India,Spain and Brazil(Fig.2). The growth in international trade of grapes was encouraged by the followingfactors :
Development of new varieties enabling extension of marketing season.
Application of post harvest technology .
Large investment in marketing infrastructure.
Adoption of quality control measures right from planting to export.The main export markets for grape are USA and Europe. The size of European market is more than1 million tonne. The South East Asia , Japan and also Middle East to some extent are other important markets.( Fig-3)
. Grape Export from India:
 The grape export from India started in the year 1991 with the initiation of economic liberalisation.Total export is about 20,646 tonne, which amounts to only 2% of total production. The importers of Indian grapes are UK, Netherlands, Germany, USA, UAE, Saudi Arabia, Quatar, Oman, Bahrain, SriLanka, Bangla Desh, Mauritius, Singapore and Hongkong. However, our export to the Middle Eastaccounts for 90% of the export while 8% is accounted by European countries and the rest by theSouth East Asian countries.

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