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Linked Data - Evolving the Web Into a Global Data Space

Linked Data - Evolving the Web Into a Global Data Space

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Published by Dino Macchi

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Published by: Dino Macchi on Jul 02, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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07/18/2012

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 Table of Contents
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Table of Contents ........................................................................................................................... 1Preface .......................................................................................................................................... 6Chapter 1: Introduction.................................................................................................................. 8The Data Deluge......................................................................................................................... 8The Rationale for Linked Data .................................................................................................. 10Structure Enables Sophisticated Processing .......................................................................... 10Hyperlinks Connect Distributed Data .................................................................................... 12From Data Islands to a Global Data Space ................................................................................ 13Introducing Big Lynx Productions ............................................................................................. 16Chapter 2: Principles of Linked Data ............................................................................................. 18The Principles in a Nutshell ...................................................................................................... 19Naming Things with URIs .......................................................................................................... 21Making URIs Defererenceable .................................................................................................. 23303 URIs ............................................................................................................................... 24Hash URIs ............................................................................................................................. 28Hash versus 303 ................................................................................................................... 30Providing Useful RDF Information ............................................................................................ 31The RDF Data Model ............................................................................................................ 32Benefits of using the RDF Data Model in the Linked Data Context ..................................... 35RDF Features Best Avoided in the Linked Data Context ..................................................... 36RDF Serialization Formats ..................................................................................................... 37RDF/XML .......................................................................................................................... 37RDFa................................................................................................................................. 38Turtle ............................................................................................................................... 40N-Triples........................................................................................................................... 40RDF/JSON ......................................................................................................................... 41Including Links to other Things ................................................................................................. 41Relationship Links................................................................................................................. 43
 
Identity Links ........................................................................................................................ 44Vocabulary Links .................................................................................................................. 48Conclusions .............................................................................................................................. 50Chapter 3: The Web of Data ......................................................................................................... 54Bootstrapping the Web of Data ................................................................................................ 55Topology of the Web of Data ................................................................................................... 58Cross-Domain Data............................................................................................................... 59Geographic Data .................................................................................................................. 60Media Data .......................................................................................................................... 61Government Data ................................................................................................................. 63Libraries and Education ........................................................................................................ 64Life Sciences Data ................................................................................................................. 66Retail and Commerce ........................................................................................................... 67User Generated Content and Social Media ........................................................................... 68Conclusions .......................................................................................................................... 69Chapter 4: Linked Data Design Considerations ............................................................................. 70Using URIs as Names for Things ................................................................................................ 70Minting HTTP URIs ............................................................................................................... 71Guidelines for Creating Cool URIs ......................................................................................... 71Keep out of namespaces you do not control ..................................................................... 72Abstract away from implementation details ..................................................................... 73Use Natural Keys within URIs ............................................................................................ 74Example URIs ....................................................................................................................... 75Describing Things with RDF ...................................................................................................... 76Literal Triples and Outgoing Links ......................................................................................... 77Incoming Links ..................................................................................................................... 78Triples that Describe Related Resources ............................................................................... 80Triples that Describe the Description .................................................................................... 81Publishing Data about Data ...................................................................................................... 82Describing a Data Set ........................................................................................................... 82Semantic Sitemaps ........................................................................................................... 82voiD Descriptions ............................................................................................................. 84
 
Provenance Metadata .......................................................................................................... 89Licenses, Waivers and Norms for Data .................................................................................. 90Licenses vs. Waivers ......................................................................................................... 91Applying Licenses to Copyrightable Material .................................................................... 92Non-copyrightable Material.............................................................................................. 95Choosing and Using Vocabularies to Describe Data .................................................................. 97SKOS, RDFS and OWL ........................................................................................................... 97RDFS Basics .......................................................................................................................... 98Annotations in RDFS ........................................................................................................102Relating Classes and Properties .......................................................................................102A Little OWL ........................................................................................................................103Reusing Existing Terms ........................................................................................................104Selecting Vocabularies.........................................................................................................107Defining Terms ....................................................................................................................108Making Links with RDF ............................................................................................................109Making Links within a Data Set ............................................................................................109Publishing Incoming and Outgoing Links ..........................................................................110Making Links with External Data Sources .............................................................................110Choosing External Linking Targets ....................................................................................111Choosing Predicates for Linking .......................................................................................112Setting RDF Links Manually..................................................................................................113Auto-generating RDF Links ..................................................................................................114Key-based Approaches ....................................................................................................115Similarity-based Approaches ...........................................................................................116Chapter 5: Recipes for Publishing Linked Data .............................................................................119Linked Data Publishing Patterns ..............................................................................................119Patterns in a Nutshell ..........................................................................................................120From Queryable Structured Data to Linked Data..............................................................120From Static Structured Data to Linked Data .....................................................................121From Text Documents to Linked Data ..............................................................................122Additional Considerations ...................................................................................................122Data Volume: How much data needs to be served? .........................................................122

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