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The Effect of Dust Accomulaton on the Performance of Photo Vol Tic Panels

The Effect of Dust Accomulaton on the Performance of Photo Vol Tic Panels

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Published by: yousreo on Jul 02, 2011
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07/03/2011

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Dust Settling On the Southern Arava Region(Yousre Odeh Jan 28, 2010)
 Supervised by Dr. Tareq Abu HamedAbstractBecause of the increased demanding on the fossil fuels resources and the limited amount of fuels that is available in the world, the researchers face many challenges to use the renewableenergy resources efficiently. For example, in our regions the most useful and efficient source of energy is the solar energy since it is considered as one of the highest radiation density point in theworld. Therefore, the aim of this study is to focus on one of the most restriction that discouragingthe popular usage of the solar systems, dust accumulation and its effect on the performance of thecollectors.Introduction:
 Recently, there has been an increasing interest in the degradation of the performance of solar,photovoltaic, and thermal panels due to Environmental conditions. Many collectors show reduction onits performance after a short time, electrical and thermal performance. Most of these panels designatedto operate properly for more than twenty years, but it doesn't work that long because of the naturalconditions affecting its performance. For this reason, it's important to study the degradation of thecollectors leading to invent improvable techniques that might stop the efficient degradation due tonatural conditions.The performance of the solar collectors, thermal and photovoltaic collectors, is defined as theability of the cover glass to allow the radiation to penetrate the surface. The performance varies due tothe density of solar radiation at that area, the tilt angle of the panels, the properties of the materials, andthe gradual degradation of collectors that depends on the accumulation of dust particulates (Elminir,Ghitas et al. 2006).The primary source of the natural degradation is hail, chemical weathering process, naturalairborne particulates (sand and soil) and industrial carbon and other dirt, (Bethea et al., 1983). Thepresence of the airborne in the atmosphere affects the performance of the collectors in a different way,
 
2as shown in Figure [1], the density of dust on the atmosphere affecting the photovoltaic and droppingthe performance of the panels. Moreover, it might cover the tracing sensor of the outdoor panels;therefore, it will not trace the sun anymore, (Khoshaim et al., 1983). Or it might penetrate the collectorsunder the glass layer and reduce the mirror reflectance, (Thomas et al., 1985). The other possibility, itmight degrade the collectors due to its presence on the atmosphere with a high density because of thenearby industrial zones or sand storms that effect the amount of radiation to reach the panels finally(Goossens and Van Kerschaever 1999). For record, this study doesn't deal with the issue of theparticulates on the sphere or inside the concentrator. It is going to focus on the effect of dustparticulates on the performance of the surface of the collectors.
Figure [1]: Reduction in the solar intensity received by photovoltaic panels (El-Shobokshy,M. and Hussein,M,1993)
Since the early 1960s, the scientists have noticed and studied the reduction of the collectors'performance due to the pollution of solar cells' surface (Al-hasan and Ghoneim 2005). Such studies, atthat time, were focused mainly on the thermal cells and the effects of dust accumulation on the mirrorreflectance (Dietz, 1963). On the other hand, the recent researches and studies cope up with the updatedinformation that deals with the solar and photovoltaic panels. They highlight the negative results forthe effect of dust on collectors. In this context, many experiments have been made to test the effect of dust on the solar panels in terms of the collected power, the effect of particles size, the effect of windon the accumulated dust, and the effect of different types of dust (limestone, cement and carbon)
 
3(Goossens and Van Kerschaever 1999). These studies were more focused on the effect of particulateson the collected radiation in terms of its properties. Hence, they were restricted with laboratoryconditions such as the type and size of particulates that used in the experiment under zero windvelocity. Other studies show the largest deposition which always occurred during high wind speedespecially in the desert when large amount of sediment are eroded from the ground and the density of dust on the atmosphere is very high (Goossens and Offer, 1995).
Questions and/or Hypotheses
This study is to determine the amount of the settling dust in the southern Arava region in order toexpect the level of degradation of photovoltaic' performances.The importance of this study is to encourage researches to develop an improved technique to cleanup the polluted surfaces of the collectors using time, energy, and water resources efficiently. It can alsobe used to develop techniques that might be used for cooling the solar system in Arava because the highlevel of radiation affects negatively its performance as well.
Study area
 The area of this study was distributed over three stations, Figure [2]. The collected data will help todetermine the mass of dust that will settle per unit area in the following three stations:
 
Kibbutz Ktura: a natural environment as there is no industrial activities playing role in dust.
 
Kibbutz Yotvata: a polluted area since there is a cows’ farm there, the cows’ movement
increases the density of dust on the atmosphere.
 
Timna: Copper mines are there. Also, it is expected to be an active area in the near future. Thestudy aimed to show if this affects the dust settling.

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