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Adsum Notes- Public Corp Reviewer Midterm

Adsum Notes- Public Corp Reviewer Midterm

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 Notes
 
    P   a   g   e
    1 
I.
 
Public Corporation: Introduction
a.
 
Corporation
-
 
an
 
ar 
tifici
al
bei
ng
c
e
a
ted by ope
ra
tio
n
of 
law,
h
av
i
ng
the
i
g
ht of successio
n
 
an
d the po
w
e
s
,
 
a
tt
ibutes
an
d p
ope
ties exp
ess
l
y
a
utho
ized by
law
o
i
n
cide
n
t to its existe
n
ce
.
 
b.
 
Classes of CorporationsPrivate Corporation Public Corporation
-
those fo
rm
ed fo
so
m
e p
i
va
te pu
 pose
,
be
n
efit
,
 
a
i
m
o
e
n
d
.
 
DEFINITION
-
o
n
e c
e
a
ted by the St
a
te eithe
by
g
e
n
e
ral
 o
speci
al
 
a
ct fo
pu
 poses of 
a
d
m
i
n
ist
ra
tio
n
of 
l
oc
al
 
g
o
v
e
rnm
e
n
t o
 
e
n
de
i
ng
se
rv
ice i
n
the pub
l
ic i
n
te
est
.
 
-
c
e
a
ted fo
p
i
va
te
a
i
m,
 
ga
i
n,
o
  be
n
efits of its
m
e
m
 be
s
PURPOSE OFCREATION
-
est
a
 b
l
ished fo
pu
 poses co
nn
ected
w
iththe
a
d
m
i
n
ist
ra
tio
n
of ci
v
i
l
o
 
l
oc
al
 
g
o
v
e
rnm
e
n
ts
-
c
e
a
ted by the
w
i
ll
of thei
n
co
 po
ra
to
s
w
ith the
eco
gn
iz
an
ce of the St
a
te
.
 
CREATORS
-
c
e
a
tio
n
s of the St
a
te eithe
by
g
e
n
e
ral
o
 speci
al
 
a
ct
-
co
n
stitute
a
 
v
o
l
u
n
t
ar 
y
agr 
ee
m
e
n
t by
an
d
am
o
ng
its
m
e
m
 be
s
NATURE
-
i
nv
o
l
u
n
t
ar 
y co
n
seque
n
ce of 
l
e
g
is
la
tio
n
 
Metropolitan Manila Development Authority vs. Bel-Air Village Association, IncG.R. No. 135962, March 27, 2000
³A
l
oc
al
 
g
o
v
e
rnm
e
n
t is
a
"po
l
itic
al
subdi
v
isio
n
of 
a
 
na
tio
n
o
st
a
te
w
hich is co
n
stituted by
law
 
an
d h
a
ssubst
an
ti
al
co
n
t
o
l
of 
l
oc
al
 
a
ff 
a
i
s
.
" The Loc
al
Go
v
e
rnm
e
n
t Code of 1991 defi
n
es
a
 
l
oc
al
 
g
o
v
e
rnm
e
n
t u
n
it
a
s
a
"body po
l
itic
an
d co
 po
ra
te"
--
o
n
e e
n
do
w
ed
w
ith po
w
e
s
a
s
a
po
l
itic
al
subdi
v
isio
n
of the N
a
tio
nal
Go
v
e
rnm
e
n
t
an
d
a
s
a
 co
 po
ra
te e
n
tity
ep
ese
n
ti
ng
the i
n
h
a
 bit
an
ts of its te
rr 
ito
y
.
Loc
al
 
g
o
v
e
rnm
e
n
t u
n
its
ar 
e the p
o
v
i
n
ces
,
cities
,
 
m
u
n
icip
al
ities
an
d b
aranga
ys
.
They
ar 
e
al
so the te
rr 
ito
i
al
 
an
d po
l
itic
al
subdi
v
isio
n
s of the st
a
te´
c.
 
Classes of Public CorporationsQuasi-public Corporations Municipal Corporations/Local Government
-
c
e
a
ted
a
s
ag
e
n
cies of the St
a
te fo
 
narr 
o
w
 
an
d
l
i
m
ited pu
 poses
w
ithout the po
w
e
s
an
d
l
i
a
 bi
l
itiesof se
l
-
g
o
v
e
rn
i
ng
co
 po
ra
tio
n
s
.
 
-
 body po
l
itic
an
d co
 po
ra
te co
n
stituted by thei
n
co
 po
ra
tio
n
of the i
n
h
a
 bit
an
ts fo
pu
 poses of 
l
oc
al
 
g
o
v
e
rnm
e
n
t the
eof 
.
 
-
est
a
 b
l
ished by
law
p
ar 
t
l
y
a
s
an
 
ag
e
n
cy of the St
a
te to
a
ssist i
n
the ci
v
i
l
 
g
o
v
e
rnm
e
n
t of the cou
n
t
y
,
butchief 
l
y to
e
g
u
la
te
an
d
a
d
m
i
n
iste
the
l
oc
al
o
i
n
te
rnal
 
a
ff 
a
i
s of the city
,
to
wn
o
dist
ict
w
hich isi
n
co
 po
ra
ted
.
 
-
 po
l
itic
al
subdi
v
isio
n
of 
a
 
na
tio
n
o
st
a
te
w
hich isco
n
stituted by
law
 
an
d h
a
s subst
an
ti
al
co
n
t
o
l
of 
l
oc
al
 
a
ff 
a
i
s
d.
 
Elements: Municipal Corporations
1
.
 
A
l
e
gal
c
e
a
tio
n
o
i
n
co
 po
ra
tio
n
 2
.
 
A co
 po
ra
te
nam
e by
w
hich the
ar 
tifici
al
pe
so
nal
ity o
 
l
e
gal
e
n
tity is k 
n
o
wn
 
an
d i
n
 
w
hich
all
co
 po
ra
te
a
cts
ar 
e do
n
e3
.
 
In
h
a
 bit
an
ts co
n
stituti
ng
the popu
la
tio
n
 
w
ho
ar 
e i
nv
ested
w
ith the po
l
itic
al
 
an
d co
 po
ra
te po
w
e
 
w
hich
ar 
e executed th
ou
g
h du
l
y co
n
stituted office
s
an
d
ag
e
n
ts4
.
 
A p
la
ce o
te
rr 
ito
y
w
ithi
n
 
w
hich the
l
oc
al
ci
v
i
l
 
g
o
v
e
rnm
e
n
t
an
d co
 po
ra
te fu
n
ctio
n
s
ar 
e exe
cised
e.
 
Local Government: Dual PersonalityPublic or Governmental Private or Corporate
-
it is
an
 
ag
e
n
t of the st
a
te fo
the
g
o
v
e
rnm
e
n
tof the te
rr 
ito
y
an
d the i
n
h
a
 bit
an
ts
w
ithi
n
the
-
a
cts i
n
 
a
si
m
i
lar 
c
a
te
g
o
y
a
s
a
busi
n
ess co
 po
ra
tio
n,
  pe
fo
rm
i
ng
fu
n
ctio
n
s
n
ot st
ict
l
y
g
o
v
e
rnm
e
n
t
al
o
 
 
 
 Notes
 
    P   a   g   e
    2 
l
oc
al
 
g
o
v
e
rnm
e
n
t
l
i
m
its po
l
itic
al
 
-
exe
cises by de
l
e
ga
tio
n
 
a
p
ar 
t of theso
v
e
ei
gn
ty of the st
a
te
-
 p
a
t
i
m
o
n
i
al
po
w
e
s
-
they se
rv
e
a
s
an
i
n
st
u
m
e
n
t
al
ity of the St
a
tei
n
c
arr 
yi
ng
out the fu
n
ctio
n
s of 
g
o
v
e
rnm
e
n
t
.
 
-
they
a
ct
a
s
an
 
ag
e
n
cy of the co
mm
u
n
ity i
n
the
a
d
m
i
n
ist
ra
tio
n
of 
l
oc
al
 
a
ff 
a
i
s
.
 
f.
 
Local Governments: Power and Functions
i.
 
Sources of Power of Local governments
1
.
 
Co
n
stitutio
n
 2
.
 
R.
A
.
No
.
71603
.
 
A
ll
existi
ng
 
law
s
,
 
a
cts
,
dec
ees
.
Executi
v
e o
de
s
,
p
oc
lama
tio
n
s
an
d
a
d
m
i
n
ist
ra
ti
v
e o
de
s
n
oti
n
co
n
siste
n
t
w
ith the Co
n
stitutio
n
 
an
d
R.
A
.
No
.
7160
.
 
ii.
 
Classification of local government power 
1
.
 
Exp
ess po
w
e
-
those
gran
ted i
n
exp
ess
w
o
ds2
.
 
Im
 p
l
ied po
w
e
s
-
those
n
ecess
ar 
i
l
y o
a
i
rl
y i
m
 p
l
ied i
n
o
i
n
cide
n
t to the po
w
e
s exp
ess
l
y
gran
ted3
.
 
In
he
e
n
t po
w
e
s
-
those esse
n
ti
al
to the dec
lar 
ed objects
an
d pu
 poses of the co
 po
ra
tio
n
 
n
otsi
m
 p
l
y co
nv
e
n
ie
n
t but i
n
dispe
n
s
a
 b
l
e
.
 4
.
 
Le
g
is
la
ti
v
e po
w
e
s
-
po
w
e
to
ma
ke
law
s5
.
 
Executi
v
e po
w
e
s
-
po
w
e
to execute
law
s
.
 6
.
 
In
t
ram
u
ral
po
w
e
s
-
those exe
cised
w
ithi
n
the co
 po
ra
te
l
i
m
its of 
a
 
m
u
n
icip
al
co
 po
ra
tio
n
 7
.
 
Ext
ram
u
ral
po
w
e
s
-
those exe
cised outside of the co
 po
ra
te
l
i
m
its
,
 
l
ike those
g
i
v
e
n
fo
the p
otectio
n
of 
wa
te
supp
l
y
,
p
e
v
e
n
tio
n
of 
n
uis
an
ce
an
d
al
so fo
po
l
ice fo
ces8
.
 
Go
v
e
rnm
e
n
t
al
po
w
e
s
-
 
a
d
m
i
n
iste
the po
w
e
s of the St
a
te
an
d p
o
m
oti
ng
the pub
l
ic
w
e
l
ar 
e
w
ithi
n
it
.
Ex
am
 p
l
e: Po
l
ice po
w
e
r,
Po
w
e
of E
m
i
n
e
n
t Do
ma
i
n.
Po
w
e
of T
a
x
a
tio
n
 9
.
 
M
u
n
icip
al
po
w
e
s
-
those fo
the speci
al
be
n
efit
an
d
a
d
van
t
ag
e of the co
mm
u
n
ity
.
Ex
am
 p
l
e:e
ectio
n
of 
wa
te
rw
o
ks
,
 
ga
s
w
o
ks
,
e
l
ect
ic p
lan
ts
,
o
m
 
w
hich p
ofits
ma
y be de
i
v
ed by the
m
u
n
icip
al
ity
.
 
g.
 
R.A. 7924 (Metropolitan Manila Development Authority)
y
 
Only political units of the government can exercise police powerMetropolitan Manila Development Authority vs. Bel-Air Village Association, IncG.R. No. 135962, March 27, 2000
³
I
t
w
i
ll
be
n
oted th
a
t the po
w
e
s of the
MM
DA
ar 
e
l
i
m
ited to the fo
ll
o
w
i
ng
 
a
cts: fo
rm
u
la
tio
n,
coo
di
na
tio
n,
 
e
g
u
la
tio
n,
i
m
 p
l
e
m
e
n
t
a
tio
n,
p
ep
ara
tio
n,
 
manag
e
m
e
n
t
,
 
m
o
n
ito
i
ng,
setti
ng
of po
l
icies
,
i
n
st
alla
tio
n
of 
a
syste
m
 
an
d
a
d
m
i
n
ist
ra
tio
n.
The
e is
n
o sy
lla
 b
l
e i
n
 
R.
A
.
No
.
7924 th
a
t
gran
ts the
MM
DA po
l
ice po
w
e
r,
 
l
et
al
o
n
e
l
e
g
is
la
ti
v
e po
w
e
r.
 The
MM
A¶s ju
isdictio
n
 
wa
s
l
i
m
ited to
a
dd
essi
ng
co
mm
o
n
p
ob
l
e
m
s i
nv
o
lv
i
ng
b
a
sic se
rv
ices th
a
tt
ran
sce
n
ded
l
oc
al
bou
n
d
ar 
ies
.
 
I
t did
n
ot h
av
e
l
e
g
is
la
ti
v
e po
w
e
r.
 
I
ts po
w
e
 
wa
s
m
e
e
l
y to p
o
v
ide the
l
oc
al
 
g
o
v
e
rnm
e
n
t u
n
its tech
n
ic
al
 
a
ssist
an
ce i
n
the p
ep
ara
tio
n
of 
l
oc
al
de
v
e
l
op
m
e
n
t p
lan
s
.
A
n
y se
m
 b
lan
ce of 
l
e
g
is
la
ti
v
e
 
This Act st
a
tes the po
l
icy of the St
a
te to t
e
a
t
M
et
o
Man
i
la
 
a
s
a
speci
al
de
v
e
l
op
m
e
n
t
an
d
a
d
m
i
n
ist
ra
ti
v
e
e
g
io
n
 
an
dce
t
a
i
n
b
a
sic se
rv
ices
a
ffecti
ng
o
i
nv
o
lv
i
ng
 
M
et
o
Man
i
la
 
a
s
m
et
o
w
ide se
rv
ices
m
o
e efficie
n
t
l
y
an
d effecti
v
e
l
y p
lann
ed
,
supe
rv
ised
an
d coo
di
na
ted by
a
de
v
e
l
op
m
e
n
t
a
utho
ity
a
s c
e
a
ted he
ei
n,
 
w
ithout p
ejudice to the
a
uto
n
o
m
y of the
a
ffected LGU
.
A
m
o
ng
its pe
ti
n
e
n
t p
o
v
isio
n
s
ar 
e:1)
 
Scope of 
MM
DA (
m
et
o
-
w
ide) se
rv
ices: De
v
e
l
op
m
e
n
t p
lann
i
ng;
t
ran
spo
t
an
d t
ra
ffic
manag
e
m
e
n
t
;
so
l
id
wa
ste dispos
al
 
an
d
manag
e
m
e
n
t
;
F
l
ood co
n
t
o
l;
U
 b
an
 
e
n
e
wal;
zo
n
i
ng
 
an
d
lan
d use p
lann
i
ng;
he
al
ths
an
it
a
tio
n;
U
 b
an
p
otectio
n
 
an
d po
ll
utio
n
co
n
t
o
l;
pu8b
l
ic s
a
fety
;
 2)
 
C
e
a
tio
n
of 
M
et
o
Man
i
la
Cou
n
ci
l
(
MM
C) co
n
sisti
ng
of 
all
 
ma
yo
s i
n
 
M
et
o
Man
i
la
 3)
 
Po
w
e
s
an
d Fu
n
ctio
n
s of 
MM
DA
,
 
ma
i
nl
y to fo
rm
u
la
te
,
coo
di
na
te
,
 
an
d
e
g
u
la
te i
m
 p
l
e
m
e
n
t
a
tio
n
of 
a
 bo
v
e
m
et
o
-
w
ide se
rv
ices4)
 
Fu
n
ctio
n
s of 
MM
C
,
 
ma
i
nl
y to
a
 pp
o
v
e p
ojects of 
MM
DA5)
 
Fu
n
ctio
n
of 
MM
DA ch
a
i
rman
: Execute po
l
icies of 
MM
C
an
d
manag
e ope
ra
tio
n
s of 
MM
DA
;
 
a
 ppoi
n
t
m
e
n
t po
w
e
r;
p
ep
ar 
e bud
g
et of 
MM
DA
;
discip
l
i
nar 
y po
w
e
o
n
subo
di
na
tes
;
ex officio bo
ar 
d
m
e
m
 be
(o
his
ep
ese
n
t
a
ti
v
e) of dep
ar 
t
m
e
n
ts
e
la
ted to
a
cti
v
ities of 
MM
DA such
a
s DOTC
,
DOH
,
etc
.
 6)
 
In
stitutio
nal
 
l
i
n
ag
es of 
MM
DA: NEDA
,
NGOs
,
 
a
cc
edited peop
l
e¶s o
rgan
iz
a
tio
n
s
 
 
 Notes
 
    P   a   g   e
    3 
 po
w
e
it h
a
d
wa
s co
n
fi
n
ed to
a
"
e
v
ie
w
[of]
l
e
g
is
la
tio
n
p
oposed by the
l
oc
al
 
l
e
g
is
la
ti
v
e
a
sse
m
 b
l
ies to e
n
su
eco
n
siste
n
cy
am
o
ng
 
l
oc
al
 
g
o
v
e
rnm
e
n
ts
an
d
w
ith the co
m
 p
ehe
n
si
v
e de
v
e
l
op
m
e
n
t p
lan
of 
M
et
o
Man
i
la,
"
an
d to"
a
d
v
ise the
l
oc
al
 
g
o
v
e
rnm
e
n
ts
a
cco
di
ngl
y
.
"The
MM
DA is
n
ot
a
po
l
itic
al
u
n
it of 
g
o
v
e
rnm
e
n
t thus c
ann
ot
val
id
l
y exe
cise po
l
ice po
w
e
r.
´
Solicitor General v. Metropolitan Manila Authority
 ³The
m
e
a
su
es i
n
questio
n
 
ar 
e e
na
ct
m
e
n
ts of 
l
oc
al
 
g
o
v
e
rnm
e
n
ts
a
cti
ng
o
nl
y
a
s
ag
e
n
ts of the
na
tio
nal
 
l
e
g
is
la
tu
e
.
Necess
ar 
i
l
y
,
the
a
cts of these
ag
e
n
ts
m
ust
ef 
l
ect
an
d co
n
fo
rm
to the
w
i
ll
of thei
p
i
n
cip
al.
To test the
val
idity of such
a
cts i
n
the specific c
a
se
n
o
w
befo
e us
,
 
w
e
a
 pp
l
y the p
ar 
ticu
lar 
 
equisites of 
a
 
val
id o
di
nan
ce
a
s
la
iddo
wn
by the
a
ccepted p
i
n
cip
l
es
g
o
v
e
rn
i
ng
 
m
u
n
icip
al
co
 po
ra
tio
n
s
.
 Acco
di
ng
to E
ll
iot
,
 
a
 
m
u
n
icip
al
o
di
nan
ce
,
to be
val
id:
1) must not contravene the Constitution or anystatute; 2) must not be unfair or oppressive; 3) must not be partial or discriminatory; 4) must not prohibitbut may regulate trade; 5) must not be unreasonable; and 6) must be general and consistent with publicpolicy
.
 A c
ar 
efu
l
study of the Go
n
o
ng
decisio
n
 
w
i
ll
sho
w
th
a
t the
m
e
a
su
es u
n
de
co
n
side
ra
tio
n
do
n
ot p
a
ss thefi
st c
ite
io
n
bec
a
use they do
n
ot co
n
fo
rm
to existi
ng
 
law.
The pe
ti
n
e
n
t
law
is PD 1605
.
PD 1605 does
n
ot
all
o
w
 eithe
the
e
m
o
val
of 
l
ice
n
se p
la
tes o
the co
n
fisc
a
tio
n
of d
i
v
e
r'
s
l
ice
n
ses fo
t
ra
ffic
v
io
la
tio
n
s co
mm
itted i
n
 
M
et
opo
l
it
an
 
Man
i
la.
The
e is
n
othi
ng
i
n
the fo
ll
o
w
i
ng
p
o
v
isio
n
s of the dec
ee
a
utho
izi
ng
the
M
et
opo
l
it
an
 
Man
i
la
 Co
mm
issio
n
(
an
d
n
o
w
the
M
et
opo
l
it
an
 
Man
i
la
Autho
ity) to i
m
 pose such s
an
ctio
n
s
.
 
In
a
ct
,
the p
o
v
isio
n
s p
ohibit the i
m
 positio
n
of such s
an
ctio
n
s i
n
 
M
et
opo
l
it
an
 
Man
i
la.
The Co
mm
issio
n
 
wa
s
all
o
w
ed to "i
m
 pose fi
n
es
an
d othe
rw
ise discip
l
i
n
e" t
ra
ffic
v
io
la
to
s o
nl
y "i
n
such
am
ou
n
ts
an
d u
n
de
such pe
nal
ties
a
s
ar 
e he
ei
n
p
esc
ibed
,
" th
a
t is
,
by the dec
ee itse
l
.
No
w
he
e is the
e
m
o
val
of 
l
ice
n
se p
la
tes di
ect
l
yi
m
 posed by the dec
ee o
 
a
t
l
e
a
st
all
o
w
ed by it to be i
m
 posed by the Co
mm
issio
n.
Not
a
 b
l
y
,
Sectio
n
5 the
eof exp
ess
l
y p
o
v
ides th
a
t "i
n
c
a
se of t
ra
ffic
v
io
la
tio
n
s
,
the d
i
v
e
r'
s
l
ice
n
se sh
all
 
n
ot be co
n
fisc
a
ted
.
" These
est
ictio
n
s
ar 
e
a
 pp
l
ic
a
 b
l
e to the
M
et
opo
l
it
an
 
Man
i
la
Autho
ity
an
d
all
othe
 
l
oc
al
po
l
itic
al
subdi
v
isio
n
s co
m
 p
isi
ng
 
M
et
opo
l
it
an
 
Man
i
la,
i
n
c
l
udi
ng
the
M
u
n
icip
al
ity of 
Man
d
al
uyo
ng.
 The
equi
e
m
e
n
t th
a
t the
m
u
n
icip
al
e
na
ct
m
e
n
t
m
ust
n
ot
v
io
la
te existi
ng
 
law
exp
la
i
n
s itse
l
.
Loc
al
po
l
itic
al
 subdi
v
isio
n
s
ar 
e
a
 b
l
e to
l
e
g
is
la
te o
nl
y by
v
i
tue of 
a
 
val
id de
l
e
ga
tio
n
of 
l
e
g
is
la
ti
v
e po
w
e
o
m
the
na
tio
nal
 
l
e
g
is
la
tu
e (except o
nl
y th
a
t the po
w
e
to c
e
a
te thei
o
wn
sou
ces of 
e
v
e
n
ue
an
d to
l
e
v
y t
a
xes is co
n
fe
rr 
ed by theCo
n
stitutio
n
itse
l
.
) They
ar 
e
m
e
e
ag
e
n
ts
v
ested
w
ith
w
h
a
t is c
all
ed the po
w
e
of subo
di
na
te
l
e
g
is
la
tio
n.
Asde
l
e
ga
tes of the Co
ngr 
ess
,
the
l
oc
al
 
g
o
v
e
rnm
e
n
t u
n
it c
ann
ot co
n
t
rav
e
n
e but
m
ust obey
a
t
all
ti
m
es the
w
i
ll
of thei
  p
i
n
cip
al.
 
In
the c
a
se befo
e us
,
the e
na
ct
m
e
n
ts i
n
questio
n,
 
w
hich
ar 
e
m
e
e
l
y
l
oc
al
i
n
o
i
g
i
n,
c
ann
ot p
e
va
i
l
 
aga
i
n
stthe dec
ee
,
 
w
hich h
a
s the fo
ce
an
d effect of 
a
st
a
tute
.
´
h.
 
Administrative Regions
DEF
I
 N
I
T
I
ON
Chiongbian vs. Orobos 254 SCRA 253 (1995)
³Ad
m
i
n
ist
ra
ti
v
e
e
g
io
n
s
ar 
e
m
e
e
gr 
oupi
ng
s of co
n
ti
g
uous P
o
v
i
n
ces fo
 
a
d
m
i
n
ist
ra
ti
v
e pu
 poses
.
They
ar 
e
n
ot te
rr 
itio
i
al
 
an
d po
l
itic
al
subdi
v
isio
n
s
l
ike P
o
v
i
n
ces
,
Cities
,
 
M
u
n
icip
al
ities
an
d B
aranga
ys
.
´
R. A. 6766 (Organic Act for Cordillera Autonomous Region of 1989)
 
 
This Act p
o
v
ides fo
c
e
a
tio
n
of the Co
di
ll
e
ra
Auto
n
o
m
ous
e
g
io
n
(CA
) sh
all
co
n
sist of the cities
an
d p
o
v
i
n
ces th
a
tsh
all
 
v
ote f 
av
o
ra
 b
l
e i
n
 
a
p
l
ebiscite pu
su
an
t
an
t 10
,
Sec
.
18 of the Co
n
stitutio
n.
Those cities
an
d p
o
v
i
n
ces
ar 
e Be
ng
uet
,
 
I
fu
ga
o
,
 
M
us
l
i
m
P
o
v
i
n
ce
,
Ab
ra,
al
i
nga
-
Ap
a
y
a
o
an
d B
ag
uioThe Act co
n
sists of the fo
ll
o
w
i
ng
pe
ti
n
e
n
t
ar 
tic
l
es:1)
 
Guidi
ng
p
i
n
cip
l
es
an
d po
l
icies si
m
i
lar 
to th
a
t of A
t
.
2 of the 1987 Co
n
stitutio
n
 2)
 
Vesti
ng
of 
l
e
g
is
la
ti
v
e po
w
e
i
n
the Co
di
ll
e
ra
Asse
m
 b
l
y
;
executi
v
e po
w
e
Co
di
ll
e
ra
 
g
o
v
e
rn
o
 
w
ith
a
deputy
g
o
v
e
rn
o
 
a
s
w
e
ll;
c
e
a
tio
n
of i
n
di
g
e
n
ous speci
al
cou
ts
w
hose decisio
n
s
ar 
e fi
nal
 
an
d executo
y but subject tothe o
i
g
i
nal
 
an
d
a
 ppe
lla
te ju
isdictio
n
of the Sup
e
m
e Cou
t3)
 
C
e
a
tio
n
of 
a
 
e
g
io
nal
Co
mm
issio
n
o
n
Appoi
n
t
m
e
n
ts4)
 
M
e
a
su
es to p
otect
an
d de
v
e
l
op the
an
cest
ral
 
lan
ds
an
d
an
cest
ral
do
ma
i
n
s of i
n
di
g
e
n
ous cu
l
tu
ral
co
mm
u
n
ities
a
s
w
e
ll
 
a
s the
na
tio
nal
eco
n
o
m
y
an
d p
a
t
i
m
o
n
yThe
est of its p
o
v
isio
n
s
ar 
e
ou
g
h
l
y si
m
i
lar 
to the O
rgan
ic Act fo
A
RMM
(see11
-
c) CA
 
n
e
v
e
c
am
e to existe
n
ce
.
O
nl
y
I
fu
ga
o p
o
v
i
n
ce
v
oted i
n
av
o
of CA
R,
so the Sup
e
m
e Cou
t i
n
O
di
ll
o
v.
CO
M
ELEC
u
l
ed th
a
t
I
fu
ga
o cou
l
d
n
o co
n
stituteitse
l
f i
n
to the CA
 

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