D o w n l o a d e d B y : [ H a n c o c k , J e f f r e y T . ] A t : 2 3 : 4 3 2 6 M a r c h 2 0 0 8
creatednewopportunitiesfordeception(Hancock,2007).Deception,ingeneral,isnot an infrequent part of human communication. Indeed, it has been reported thatpeople tell an average of one to two lies a day (DePaulo, Kashy, Kirkendol, Wyer,& Epstein, 1996), and recent research suggests that these everyday lies also takeplace in mediated communication (Hancock, Thom-Santelli, & Ritchie , 2004).As Granhag and Strömwall (2004, p. 324) pointed out, the fact that lying oc-curs across different communication media has important implications for thestudy of deception (see also Carlson, George, Burgoon, Adkins, & White, 2004;Hancock, 2007). For example, how does deception affect language use intext-based interactions, such as e-mail and instant messaging; that is, can lin-guistic patterns differentiate between deceptive and truthful electronic communi-cation? If so, can these linguistic patterns be assessed in ways that might be use-ful in detecting some of the potentially dangerous types of deceptionincreasingly found in online chat rooms, such as the sexual predation of minors(Mitchell, Finkelhor, & Wolak, 2001)?In this study, we begin to address these questions by examining the linguisticprofiles of deceptive and truthful liars and their partners engaged in synchronous,text-basedcomputer-mediatedcommunication(CMC).Unlikepreviousdeceptionresearchthathasfocusedprimarilyontheliar’sbehavior,inthisstudyweexaminethe linguistic behavior of both the liar and the target of the lie. We also manipulatethe
of liars to succeed in their deceptions in an effort to examine howmotivation affects the linguistic profile of digital deception.
AUTOMATED ANALYSIS OF LINGUISTIC CUESIN DECEPTION
Although not as well-studied as the non-verbal aspects of deception (Miller &Stiff, 1993), the language of deception has been examined with several differentapproaches(seeShuy,1988),includingStatementValidityAnalysis(seeRaskin&Esplin, 1991), Scientific Content Analysis (see Driscoll, 1994), and Reality Moni-toring (see Johnson & Raye, 1998). These approaches or techniques to analyzingdeceptive and truthful language are based on theoretical assumptions of how de-ceptionshouldbereflectedinlanguage.Forexample,RealityMonitoringassumesthat descriptions of real memories of an event differ from imagined or fabricatedmemories, such that descriptions of real memories will contain more perceptualandcontextualinformationthanfalsememories.Codersexaminetranscriptsofin-terviews and statements for evidence of these types of differences (e.g., Vrij, Ed-ward, Roberts, & Bull, 2000).More recently, automated linguistic techniques in which computer programsare used to analyze the linguistic properties of texts have been used to examine thelinguistic profiles of deceptive language (e.g., Bond & Lee, 2005; Newman,
HANCOCK, CURRY, GOORHA, WOODWORTH