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Philippine presidents

Philippine presidents

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Published by Ghen Canosa
historee...ramon magsaysay, carlos G. and Diosdado M.
historee...ramon magsaysay, carlos G. and Diosdado M.

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Published by: Ghen Canosa on Jul 03, 2011
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RAMON MAGSAYSAY 
(August 31, 1907- March 17, 1957)The third President of the Third Republic of the Philippines from December 30, 1953 until hisdeath. He was a Nacionalista.
Order: 7 
th
President of the Philippines(3
rd 
President of the 3
rd 
Republic)Term of Office: December 30, 1953- March 17, 1957 Vice President: Carlos P. Garcia Predecessor: Elpidio QuirinoSuccessor: Carlos P. Garcia Born: August 31, 1907 at Iba, Zambales First lady: Luz Banzon-Magsaysay (1915-2004) with 3 children: Teresita & Milagros Magsaysay and  former congressman and now senator Ramon Magsaysay, Jr. (1938)
Early Life and Career
Ramon Magsaysay was born in Iba, Zambales. His parents were Ezequil Magsaysay, a blacksmith, and Perfectadel Fierro, a school teacher. Of Visayan descent, he was nonetheless ethnicallyaffiliated with the Ilocanos of Iba and considered himself as one of them.Magsaysay studied at Zambales Academy during his high school. In 1927, he enrolled at the Universityof the Philippines. He took up pre-law course and later shifted to engineering, all the while working as achauffeur to support himself. However, he did not finish his course due to illness. Eventually he studiedcommerce at Jose Rizal College, graduating in 1933.When World War II broke out in the country, Magsaysay joined the motor pool of the 31
st
InfantryDivision of the Philippine army. Following the fall of Bataan in 1942, he organized the Western LuzonGuerilla Forces that fought against Japanese.In 1946, Magsaysay was elected on the Liberal party ticket to the Philippine House of Representative. He was appointed Secretary of National Defense in the administration of PresidentElpidio Quirino in 1950. He intensified the campaign against the HUKBALAHAP guerillas, waging oneof the most successful anti-guerilla campaigns in modern history. This success was due in part to theunconventional methods he employed, namely utilizing soldiers to distribute relief goods and other formsof aid outlying, provincial communities. Where before Mafsaysay the rural folk looked on the PhilippineArmy if not in distrust, at least with general apathy. During this term as Defense Secretary, Filipinos began to respect and admire their soldiers. In 1953, he resigned from his post as defense secretary,criticizing the Liberal government and becoming the presidential candidate of the Nacionalist party.
Presidency
In the Philippine election of 1953, Magsaysay won president over the incumbent Elpidio Quirinowith a convincing fashion. He was sworn into the office wearing the Barong Tagalog, a first by aPhilippine president.As president, he was a close friend and supporter of the United States and a vocal spokesmanagainst communism during the Cold War. He led the foundation of the Southeast Asia TreatyOrganization also known as the Manila Pact of 1954, that aimed to defeat communist-Marxist movementsin South East Asia, South Asia and the Southwestern Pacific. During his term, he made MalacañángPalace literally a "house of the people", opening its gates to the public. One example of his integrityfollowed a demonstration flight aboard a new plane belonging to the Philippine Air Force (PAF).President Magsaysay asked what the operating costs per hour were for that type of aircraft, then wrote a personal check to the PAF, covering the cost of his flight.
 
His administration was considered one of the cleanest and most corruption-free; his presidencywas cited as the Philippines' Golden Years. Trade and industry flourished, the Philippine military was atits prime, and the Filipino people were given international recognition in sports, culture and foreignaffairs. The Philippines ranked second in Asia's clean and well-governed countries
Dom
estic P
o
liciesAgrarian Ref 
o
r
m
 
President Ramón Magsaysay enacted the following laws as part of his Agrarian Reform Program:
 
Republic Act No. 1160 of 1954²Abolished the LASEDECO and established the NationalResettlement and Rehabilitation Administration (NARRA) to resettle dissidents and landless farmers.It was particularly aimed at rebel returnees providing home lots and farmlands in Palawan andMindanao.
 
Republic Act No. 1199 (Agricultural Tenancy Act of 1954) -- governed the relationship betweenlandowners and tenant farmers by organizing share-tenancy and leasehold system. The law providedthe security of tenure of tenants. It also created the Court of Agrarian Relations.
 
Republic Act No. 1400 (Land Reform Act of 1955) -- Created the Land Tenure Administration (LTA)which was responsible for the acquisition and distribution of large tenanted rice and corn lands over 200 hectares for individuals and 600 hectares for corporations.
 
Republic Act No. 821 (Creation of Agricultural Credit Cooperative Financing Administration) --Provided small farmers and share tenants loans with low interest rates of six to eight percent.
F
o
reign P
o
liciesSEATO
The administration of President Magsaysay was active in the fight against the expansion of communism in the Asian region. He made the Philippines a member of the Southeast Asia TreatyOrganization (SEATO), which was established in Manila on Sept. 8, 1954 during the "ManilaConference". Members of SEATO were alarmed at the possible victory of North Vietnam over SouthVietnam, which could spread communist ideology to other countries in the region. The possibility that acommunist state can influence or cause other countries to adopt the same system of government is calledthe domino theory.The active coordination of the Magsaysay administration with the Japanese government led to theReparation Agreement. This was an agreement between the two countries, obligating the Japanesegovernment to pay $550 million as reparation for war damages in the Philippines.
Laurel-Langley Agree
m
ent
The Magsaysay administration negotiated the Laurel-Langley Agreement which was a tradeagreement between the Philippines and the United States which was signed in 1955 and expired in 1974.Although it proved deficient, the final agreement satisfied nearly all of the diverse Filipino economicinterests. While some have seen the Laurel-Langley agreement as a continuation of the 1946 trade act,Jose P. Laurel and other Philippine leaders recognized that the agreement substantially gave the countrygreater freedom to industrialize while continuing to receive privileged access to US markets.
Reparati
o
ns Agree
m
ent
Following the reservations made by Ambassador Romulo, on the Philippines behalf, upon signingthe Japanese Peace Treaty in San Francisco on September 8, 1951, for several years of series of negotiations were conducted by the Philippine government and that of Japan. In the face of adamant
 
claims of the Japanese government that it found impossible to meet the demand for the payment of eight billion dollars by the way of reparations, president Magsaysay, during a so-called "cooling off" period,sent a Philippine Reparations Survey Committee, headed by Finance Secretary Jaime Hernandez, to Japanfor an "on the spot" study of that country's possibilities.When the Committee reported that Japan was in a position to pay, Ambassador Felino Neri,appointed chief negotiator, went to Tokyo. On May 31, 1955, Ambassador Neri reached a compromiseagreement with Japanese Minister Takazaki, the main terms of which consisted in the following: TheJapanese government would pay eight hundred million dollars as reparations. Payment was to be made inthis wise: Twenty million dollars would be paid in cash in Philippine currency; thirty million dollars, inservices; five million dollars, in capital goods; and two hundred and fifty million dollars, in long-termindustrial loans.
]
 On August 12, 1955, President Magsaysay informed the Japanese government, through PrimeMinister Ichiro Hatoyama, that the Philippines accepted the Neri-Takazaki agreement.In view of politicaldevelopments in Japan, the Japanese Prime Minister could only inform the Philippine government of theJapanese acceptance of said agreement on March 15, 1956. The official Reparations agreement betweenthe two government was finally signed at Malacañang Palace on May 9, 1956, thus bringing to a rather satisfactory conclusion this long drawn controversy between the two countries.
M
agsaysay¶s Charis
m
a as a Leader
The votes of the masses or the ³common tao´ made Ramon Magsaysay as Philippine President in 1953.True to his promise, Magsaysay tried hard to improve the status of the masses. He geared hisadministration to the urgent demands of rural improvement. To make the move toward the attainment of his development goals, Magsaysay had Congress pass the Agricultural Tenancy Act in 954 which provides for a greater protection to the tenants by granting them the freedom to choose the system of tenancy under which they would want to work. The implementation of this Act was accomplished withthe establishment of the Agriculture Tenancy Commission and the Court of Agrarian Relations whosemain function is to settle satisfactorily and promptly all tenancy disputes.During the first year of Magsaysay¶s administration, 28,000 land patents covering 241,000 hectares, wereissued to settlers/landless. The following year, the number increased to 33,075. Agricultural lots weredistributed to landless applicants. It was during his barrio-to-barrio campaigns that he realized, as nobodyin the government realized, the plight of the ³taos´ who lacked the necessary leadership to make their voices heard.The Philippines during Magsaysay time successfully negotiated the RP-US trade relations that culminatedin the signing of the Laurel-Langley Trade Agreement of 1956. It was also during Macapagal¶s term thatJapan agreed to pay war reparation to the Philippines over a 20 year period for the damage inflicted by theJapanese to the country during World War II.
D
EATH
Magsaysay left Manila for Cebu where he was scheduled to speak at an educational institution. That samenight, he boarded the presidential plane ³Mt. Pinatubo´ heading back to Manila. In the early morninghours of March 17, his plane was reported missing. It was late in the afternoon that day that newspapersreported that the airplane had crashed on Mt. Manunggal in Cebu, and all those aboard killed except onenewspaperman, Nestor Mata. Vice President Carlos P. Garcia assumed the presidency to complete the lasteight months of Magsaysay¶s term. An estimated 2 million people attended Magsaysay¶s burial on March22, 1957.

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