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Epizootic Haemotopoetic Necrosis in Fish

Epizootic Haemotopoetic Necrosis in Fish

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Published by draculavanhelsing
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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: draculavanhelsing on Jul 03, 2011
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02/21/2014

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Sourced rom AGDAFF (2008)
 Aquatic Animal Diseases Signifcant to Australia: Identifcation Field Guide 
.Australian Government Department o Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry. Canberra.© Commonwealth o Australia 2008This work is copyright. It may be reproduced in whole or in part subject to the inclusion o an acknowledgment o the source and no commercial usage or sale.
PAGE 1
Diseases o fnfshViral diseases—
Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis
Signs o disease
Important: animals with disease may show one ormore of the signs below, but disease may still bepresent in the absence of any signs.
Disease signs at the arm level
typically many (hundreds or thousands) of small sh less than 10 cm long found ondownwind bank of water body large numbers of sh-eating birds(e.g. seagulls) at water surface
Disease signs at the tank or pond level
sh cease feedingjuveniles (<25 mm) often swimming indisorientated fashion at surfaceadults may also be affected when the diseaserst arrives in an area
Clinical signs o disease in an inected animal
distended abdomendarkened skin colourpetechial (pinpoint) haemorrhages at base of nshaemorrhaging of the gills
Gross signs o disease in an inected animal
swollen kidney and spleen
Disease agent
Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis (EHN) in Australia is caused by epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV), a systemic iridovirus (ranavirus).Related viruses are responsible for causing the same disease in sheatsh and catsh in Europe(European sheatsh virus and European catsh virus).Note: In this guide, only EHN disease caused by EHNV is discussed.
Mass mortality o redfn perch. Note the small size oindividuals aected and swollen stomach o fsh at thecentre o the photograph.
Source: J Humphrey
Note the characteristic haemorrhagic gills o the redfnperch on the let.
Source: J Humphrey
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, FISHERIES AND FORESTRY
 
Sourced rom AGDAFF (2008)
 Aquatic Animal Diseases Signifcant to Australia: Identifcation Field Guide 
.Australian Government Department o Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry. Canberra.© Commonwealth o Australia 2008This work is copyright. It may be reproduced in whole or in part subject to the inclusion o an acknowledgment o the source and no commercial usage or sale.
PAGE 2
Host range
Fish known to be susceptible to EHN:rainbow trout* (
Oncorhynchus mykiss 
)redn perch* (
Perca uviatilis 
)Macquarie perch (
Macquaria australasica 
)mosquito sh (
Gambusia afnis 
)mountain galaxias (
Galaxias olidus 
)silver perch (
Bidyanus bidyanus 
)
Presence in Australia
EHN has been ofcially reported from the Australian Capital Territory,New South Wales, South Australia and Victoria.
Epidemiology
EHN is usually seen in Australia as large kills of small redn perch, but mortality also occurs amongolder perch.Clinical outbreaks are associated with poor water quality and water temperature (between 11°C and17°C in rainbow trout and above 12°C in redn perch).Kills occur over a short period (several weeks) in summer and then the disease may disappear froman area for years.Low mortalities over a period of months have been reported in young farmed rainbow trout.Infectivity is less severe in rainbow trout, with the disease mainly affecting ngerlings <125 mm long.Low-grade mortalities with covert EHNV infection can also occur in grower sh. Therefore, care must taken when moving redn perch and rainbow trout from the known geographical range of EHNV toareas where it is exotic, unless freedom can be adequately documented.Low prevalence of antibodies in naturally infected trout suggests a very low prevalence of carrierstatus in farmed trout.
Dierential diagnosis
The differential diagnostic table and the list of similar diseases appearing at the bottom of eachdisease page refer only to the diseases covered by this eld guide. Gross signs observed might well berepresentative of a wider range of diseases not included here. Therefore, these diagnostic aids shouldnot be read as a guide to a denitive diagnosis, but rather as a tool to help identify the listed diseasesthat most closely account for the gross signs.
Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis continued
* naturally susceptible (other species have been shown to be experimentally susceptible)

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