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Viral Encephalopathy & Retinopathy in Fish

Viral Encephalopathy & Retinopathy in Fish

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Published by draculavanhelsing
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Published by: draculavanhelsing on Jul 03, 2011
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06/04/2012

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Sourced rom AGDAFF (2008)
 Aquatic Animal Diseases Signifcant to Australia: Identifcation Field Guide 
.Australian Government Department o Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry. Canberra.© Commonwealth o Australia 2008This work is copyright. It may be reproduced in whole or in part subject to the inclusion o an acknowledgment o the source and no commercial usage or sale.
PAGE 1
Diseases o fnfshViral diseases—
 Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy
(also known as viral nervous necrosis)
Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy in seven-bandedgrouper (
Epinephelus septemfasciatus 
). Dark fsh areaected; light fsh are normal. Conversely, barramundishow lighter colouration when aected.
Source: B Munday
Signs o disease
Important: animals with disease may show one ormore of the signs below, but disease may still bepresent in the absence of any signs.
Disease signs at the arm level
•
50% to 100% mortality over several weeks
Disease signs at the tank and pond level
•
erratic, uncoordinated darting
•
corkscrew swimming
•
loss of equilibrium (resting belly-up)
•
hyperactivity 
•
sporadic protrusion of head from water
•
mortality of larvae
Clinical signs o disease in an inected animal
•
colour change—affected barramundi become lighter, but grouper become darker
•
abnormal swimming behaviours, including spiral and/or looping swim pattern, uncoordinateddarting, belly-up at rest 
•
overinated swim bladder
•
anorexiablindness resulting from lesions in eyes• abrasions• emaciation• lethargy 
Disease agent
 Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy virus is a nodavirus formerly called barramundi picorna-like virusand striped jack nervous necrosis virus.
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, FISHERIES AND FORESTRY
 
Sourced rom AGDAFF (2008)
 Aquatic Animal Diseases Signifcant to Australia: Identifcation Field Guide 
.Australian Government Department o Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry. Canberra.© Commonwealth o Australia 2008This work is copyright. It may be reproduced in whole or in part subject to the inclusion o an acknowledgment o the source and no commercial usage or sale.
PAGE 2
Host range
Fish known to be susceptible to viral encephalopathy and retinopathy: Atlantic cod* (
Gadus morhua 
) Atlantic halibut* (
Hippoglossus hippoglossus 
) Australian bass* (
Macquaria novemaculata 
)barn ounder* (
Verasper moseri 
)barramundi* (
Lates calcarifer 
)brown-marbled grouper* (
 Epinephelus fuscoguttatus 
)cobia* (
Rachycentron canadum 
)common sole* (
Solea solea 
)estuary cod* (
 Epinephelus tauvina 
)European eel* (
Anguilla anguilla 
)European seabass* (
 Dicentrarchus labrax 
)ounders* (Paralichthyidae)gilt-head seabream* (
Sparus aurata 
)greater amberjack* (
Seriola dumerili 
)grouper and estuary cod* (
 Epinephelus 
spp)humpback grouper* (
Cromileptes altivelis 
) Japanese ounder, ‘Hirame’ strain* (
Paralichthys olivaceus 
) Japanese parrotsh* (
Oplegnathus fasciatus 
) Japanese seabass* (
Lateolabrax japonicus 
)longtooth grouper* (
 Epinephelus moara 
)Malabar grouper* (
 Epinephelus malabaricus 
)orange-spotted grouper* (
 Epinephelus coioides 
)red drum* (
Sciaenops ocellatus 
)red snapper (
Lutjanus erythropterus 
)red-spotted grouper* (
 Epinephelus akaara 
)seven-band grouper* (
 Epinephelus septemfasciatus 
)shi drum* (
Umbrina cirrosa 
)silver trevally* (
Pseudocaranx dentex 
)spotted knifejaw* (
Oplegnathus punctatus 
)striped trumpeter* (
Latris lineata 
)tiger puffer* (
Takifugu rubripes 
)turbot* (
Psetta maxima 
) white seabass* (
Atractoscion nobilis 
) winter ounder* (
Pseudopleuronectes americanus 
) yellow-wax pompano* (
Trachinotus falcatus 
) Australian catsh (
Cnidoglanis macrocephalus 
)Barcoo grunter (
Scortum barcoo 
)
 Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy continued
* naturally susceptible (other species have been shown to be experimentally susceptible)
 
Sourced rom AGDAFF (2008)
 Aquatic Animal Diseases Signifcant to Australia: Identifcation Field Guide 
.Australian Government Department o Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry. Canberra.© Commonwealth o Australia 2008This work is copyright. It may be reproduced in whole or in part subject to the inclusion o an acknowledgment o the source and no commercial usage or sale.
PAGE 3
golden perch (
Macquaria ambigua 
)Macquarie perch (
Macquaria australasica 
)Murray cod (
Maccullochella peelii peelii 
)samson sh (
Seriola hippos 
)silver perch (
Bidyanus bidyanus 
)sleepy cod (
Oxyeleotris lineolatus 
)
Presence in Australia
 Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy is most virulent in Australianbarramundi and potentially other species of marine nsh, including thegroupers. It has been ofcially reported from New South Wales, NorthernTerritory, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania and Western Australia.
Epidemiology
•
 Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy has been found in more than 30 species of sh from11 families, mainly in the Pacic.
•
 Virulence and mortality are age dependent (onset of clinical disease in younger sh of some speciesresults in higher mortality).
•
Batches of barramundi larvae for aquaculture are routinely screened for this disease.
•
The incubation period for the disease in barramundi is four days, with onset about 9–28 days afterhatching. In silver trevally, onset is one day after hatching.
•
In barramundi, transmission is believed to be through the water column (i.e. via mouth, gills andskin). However, vertical transmission has been shown in silver trevally.
•
In silver trevally, transmission from parent to offspring through eggs and sperm is known. However, it is believed that transmission may also occur through the water column.
•
Mortality at one month is typically 50–100% in barramundi and 100% in silver trevally.
Dierential diagnosis
The differential diagnostic table and the list of similar diseases appearing at the bottom of eachdisease page refer only to the diseases covered by this eld guide. Gross signs observed might well berepresentative of a wider range of diseases not included here. Therefore, these diagnostic aids shouldnot be read as a guide to a denitive diagnosis, but rather as a tool to help identify the listed diseasesthat most closely account for the gross signs.
 Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy continued

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