Sourced rom AGDAFF (2008)
Aquatic Animal Diseases Signifcant to Australia: Identifcation Field Guide
.Australian Government Department o Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry. Canberra.© Commonwealth o Australia 2008This work is copyright. It may be reproduced in whole or in part subject to the inclusion o an acknowledgment o the source and no commercial usage or sale.
Diseases o fnfshViral diseases—
Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy
(also known as viral nervous necrosis)
Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy in seven-bandedgrouper (
). Dark fsh areaected; light fsh are normal. Conversely, barramundishow lighter colouration when aected.
Source: B Munday
Signs o disease
Important: animals with disease may show one ormore of the signs below, but disease may still bepresent in the absence of any signs.
Disease signs at the arm level
50% to 100% mortality over several weeks
Disease signs at the tank and pond level
erratic, uncoordinated darting
loss of equilibrium (resting belly-up)
sporadic protrusion of head from water
mortality of larvae
Clinical signs o disease in an inected animal
colour change—affected barramundi become lighter, but grouper become darker
abnormal swimming behaviours, including spiral and/or looping swim pattern, uncoordinateddarting, belly-up at rest
overinated swim bladder
anorexia• blindness resulting from lesions in eyes• abrasions• emaciation• lethargy
Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy virus is a nodavirus formerly called barramundi picorna-like virusand striped jack nervous necrosis virus.
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, FISHERIES AND FORESTRY