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Table Of Contents

Technical Underpinnings
1Introduction to Treatment Wetlands
1.1 Wetland CharaCteristiCs
1.2 tyPes oF treatment Wetlands
FWS WetlandS
HSSF WetlandS
FWS Wetland
VF WetlandS
1. Wetlands as a treatment teChnology
Municipal WaSteWater treatMent
doMeStic WaSteWater treatMent
aniMal WaSteWater treatMent
MineWater treatMent
• induStrial WaSteWater treatMent
leacHate and reMediation
urban StorMWater treatMent
Field runoFF treatMent
1. historiCal PersPeCtive
treatMent WetlandS in europe
summary
2.1 Wetland Hydrology
Hydrologic NomeNclature
meaN Water deptH
WetlaNd Water Volume aNd NomiNal deteNtioN time
oVerall Water mass BalaNces
comBiNed effects: tHe WetlaNd Water Budget
2.2 FWS Wetland HydrauliCS
tHe calculatioN structure
frictioN equatioNs for fWs WetlaNd floWs
WetlaNd data
2.3 HSSF Wetland HydrauliCS
floW iN porous media
adaptatioNs for Hssf WetlaNds
cloggiNg of Hssf Bed media
Hssf Water eleVatioN profiles
flooded operatioN
floW stratificatioN
2.4 VF Wetland HydrauliCS
iNtermitteNt doWNfloW Beds
Vertical floW tracer tests
cloggiNg
3.1 Ecology of WEtland flora
Wetland Bacteria and Fungi
Wetland algae
Wetland Macrophytes
oxygen transport as a treatMent Function
3.2 BioMaSS and groWtH
Fertilizer response
3.3 littErfall and dEcoMPoSition
patterns oF Weight loss
coMBined eFFects oF successive cohorts
BeloWground decoMposition
Mineral constituents oF litter
Background concentrations
WasteWater stresses
3.4 VEgEtatiVE coMMunitiES in trEatMEnt WEtlandS
Floating plants
Floating Mat constructed Wetlands
Woody plants
Woody plants in storMWater Wetlands
WasteWater and natural Forested Wetlands
eMergent soFt plants
exaMples oF Modern eMergent coMMunity choices
3.5 WEEdS
exaMples oF Weeds in treatMent Wetlands
4.1 Wetland energy FloWs
EnErgy BalancE TErms
HEaTing or cooling of THE WaTEr
cHangEs in sToragE: THErmal inErTia
HEaT of VaporizaTion
4.2 evaPotransPIratIon
mETHods of EsTimaTion for E, T, and ET
surfacE floW WETlands
suBsurfacE floW WETlands
sizE EffEcTs on ET
TranspiraTion: floWs inTo THE rooT zonE
4.3 Wetland Water teMPeratures
sHorT-TErm cyclEs
annual cyclEs
prEdicTing WETland WaTEr BalancE TEmpEraTurEs
WaTEr TEmpEraTurE VariaBiliTy
THE accommodaTion zonE
4.4 Cold ClIMates
insulaTion of Hssf WETlands
Warm WaTEr influEnTs To Hssf WETlands
5Air, Water, and Soil Chemical Interactions
5.1 Fundamentals OF transFer
5.2 Oxygen dynamics in treatment Wetlands
Biochemical Production of oxygen
Physical oxygen transfers
Plant oxygen transfer
emergent Plant Oxygen transfer
Biological and chemical oxygen consumPtion
Wetland Profiles
trends and VariaBility
5.3 VOlatiliZatiOn
nitrous oxide
methane
carBon dioxide
greenhouse effects
5.4 OxidatiOn-reductiOn POtential
redox Potentials in treatment Wetlands
5.5 Wetland HydrOgen iOn cOncentratiOns
surface floW Wetlands
suBsurface floW Wetlands
Wetlands treating acid mine drainage
suBstrate effects
5.6 alKalinity and acidity
alkalinity in treatment Wetlands
carBonates in treatment Wetlands
6.1 Variability in treatment Wetlands
Intrasystem VarIabIlIty
Data FolDIng
Intersystem VarIabIlIty
replIcatIon
sIDe-by-sIDe stuDIes
aggregateD Data sets
6.2 graphical representations oF treatment perFormance
perspectIVes DerIVeD From the loaDIng graph
pItFalls oF graphIcal representatIons
6.3 mass balances
chemIcal termInology
chemIcal mass balances
6.4 processes that contribute to pollutant remoVals
mIcrobIally meDIateD processes
VolatIlIzatIon
photoDegraDatIon
VertIcal DIFFusIon In soIls anD seDIments
transpIratIon Flux
6.5 characterization oF internal hydraulics
InterpretatIon oF Data
moDels For Internal hyDraulIcs
6.6 reaction rate models
IntrInsIc chemIstry
batch Versus Flow systems
6.7 other Factors aFFecting treatment perFormance
DeFInItIon oF the rate constant
temperature anD season
VarIabIlIty anD Data FolDIng
water losses anD gaIns
InteractIons wIth solIDs
6.8 dangers oF extrapolating Wetland perFormance data
7.1 SolidS MeaSureMent
Potential for SamPling errorS
SolidS CharaCterization
7.2 PartiCulate ProCeSSeS in FWS WetlandS
PartiCulate Settling
“filtration” verSuS interCePtion
reSuSPenSion
ChemiCal PreCiPitateS
BiologiCal Sediment generation
aCCretion
7.3 tSS reMoVal in FWS WetlandS
internal CyCling: maSS BalanCeS
the w-C* model
internal CyCling
SeaSonal and StoChaStiC effeCtS
inPut–outPut relationS
oPen Water areaS
Pond–Wetland ComBinationS
SuBmerged aquatiC vegetation (Sav)
7.4 PartiCulate ProCeSSeS in HSSF WetlandS
filtration and interCePtion
ChemiCal PreCiPitation
ProduCtion of BiologiCal SolidS
aCCretion and Bed Clogging
7.5 tSS reMoVal in HSSF WetlandS
7.6 tSS reMoVal in VF WetlandS
intermittent doWnfloW BedS
SuMMarY
8.1 Wetland Carbon SpeCiation and proCeSSing
BOD, COD, anD TOC
WeTlanD ChemisTry Of CarBOn
OrganiC CarBOn
CarBOn PrOCessing in WeTlanD neCrOmass anD sOils
8.2 bod reMoVal in FWS WetlandS
annual inPuT–OuTPuT COnCenTraTiOn relaTiOns
firsT-OrDer mODeling
mODel Curves
variaBiliTy in annual PerfOrmanCes
seasOnal TrenDs
8.3 bod reMoVal in HSSF WetlandS
graPhiCal relaTiOns
TemPeraTure effeCTs
Oxygen suPPly
effeCTs Of Design anD OPeraTing COnDiTiOns
8.4 bod reMoVal in VF WetlandS
graPhiCal relaTiOnshiPs
seasOnal effeCTs
9.1 NitrogeN Forms iN WetlaNd Waters
Organic nitrOgen
ammOnia
Oxidized nitrOgen
9.2 WetlaNd NitrogeN storages
SOilS and SedimentS
BiOmaSS
9.3 NitrogeN traNsFormatioNs iN WetlaNds
PhySical PrOceSSeS
theOretical cOnSideratiOnS
micrOBial PrOceSSeS
nitrificatiOn Of ammOnia
denitrificatiOn
aerOBic denitrificatiOn
anaerOBic ammOnia OxidatiOn (anammOx)
nitrOgen fixatiOn
9.4 VegetatioN eFFeCts oN NitrogeN ProCessiNg
the effectS Of VegetatiOn grOwth and cycling
accretiOn Of nitrOgenOuS reSidualS
ShOrt-term anOmalieS
harVeSt tO remOVe nitrOgen
SOil and Sediment effectS On nitrOgen PrOceSSing
9.5 NitrogeN mass balaNCes
maSS Balance caSe StudieS
imPlicatiOnS Of the nitrOgen maSS Balance netwOrk
9.6 PerFormaNCe For orgaNiC NitrogeN
lOading cOnSideratiOnS
BackgrOund cOncentratiOnS Of Organic nitrOgen
rateS and rate cOnStantS
9.7 PerFormaNCe For tKN
BackgrOund cOncentratiOnS Of tkn
9.8 PerFormaNCe For total NitrogeN
BackgrOund cOncentratiOnS Of tOtal nitrOgen
intraSyStem VariaBility
9.9 PerFormaNCe For ammoNia
reductiOn Of ammOnia in fwS wetlandS
reductiOn Of ammOnia in hSSf wetlandS
reductiOn Of ammOnia in Vf wetlandS
BackgrOund cOncentratiOnS Of nitrate
9.11 multi-sPeCies NitrogeN modeliNg
Sequential nitrOgen mOdelS: an illuStratiOn
Sequential nitrOgen mOdelS in the literature
summarY
10.1 PhosPhorus Forms in Wetland Waters
10.2 Wetland PhosPhorus storages
Plant Biomass
soils and sediments
10.3 PhosPhorus ProCessing in FWs Wetlands
sorPtion
Biomass storage and CyCling
HerBivory and PHosPHorus movement
sustainaBle removal: aCCretion
sustainaBle removal: PartiCulate settling
vertiCal PHosPHorus movement
soil PHosPHorus release
atmosPHeriC PHosPHorus ProCesses
10.4 sPatial and temPoral PhosPhorus eFFeCts in FWs Wetlands
Wetland start-uP
PHosPHorus gradients in FWs treatment Wetlands
10.5 PhosPhorus remoVal in FWs Wetlands
BaCkground ConCentrations oF total PHosPHorus
loading Considerations
10.6 FWs Wetland detailed PhosPhorus modeling
aquatiC systems in general
PHosPHorus models For everglades Wetlands
10.7 intrasYstem PhosPhorus VariabilitY in FWs Wetlands
stoCHastiC BeHavior
antiCiPated exCursion FrequenCies
10.8 longeVitY oF PhosPhorus remoVal in FWs Wetlands
long-term traCk reCords
HistoriCal unPlanned ProjeCts
reasons For loW or negative reduCtion
10.9 PhosPhorus ProCessing in subsurFaCe FloW Wetlands
Biomass CyCling
CHemiCal PreCiPitation
PartiCulate settling
10.10 PhosPhorus moVement in subsurFaCe FloW Wetlands
eFFeCt oF Bed sorPtion on PHosPHorus movement
idealized model oF sorPtion
10.11 PhosPhorus remoVal in subsurFaCe FloW Wetlands
seasonal eFFeCts
inPut–outPut relationsHiPs
stoCHastiC variaBility
11.1 Halogens
Chloride and Chlorine
Bromide and Bromine
Fluoride and Fluorine
11.2 alkalI MeTals
Sodium
PotaSSium
CalCium
magneSium
11.3 ColleCTIve PaRaMeTeRs
hardneSS
total ion Content
11.4 sulFuR
diSSimilatory SulFate reduCtion
oxidation oF SulFur and SulFideS
organiC SulFur
PhytotoxiCity
PerFormanCe oF WetlandS For SulFur removal
SulFur-induCed eutroPhiCation
11.5 TRaCe MeTals: geneRal ConsIDeRaTIons
toxiC eFFeCtS in Water and SedimentS
aBiotiC metal Partitioning
SorPtion relationS
equiliBrium metal ChemiStry CalCulationS
deSign equationS For metal removal
Storage in PlantS
Sediment Storage ConCentrationS
11.6 THe oXIDe FoRMeRs
iron
aluminum
manganeSe
11.7 HeavY MeTals
CoPPer
niCkel
lead
Cadmium
Chromium
ZinC
merCury
11.8 MeTalloIDs
arSeniC
Boron
Selenium
suMMaRY
12.1 IndIcator organIsms and measurement
12.2 PatHogen removal Processes
Solar DiSinfection
PreDation
Settling anD filtration
Mortality anD regrowth
reintroDuction
12.3 Fecal colIForm removal In FWs Wetlands
firSt-orDer reMoval MoDelS
inPut–outPut relation for fecal coliforMS
12.4 removal oF otHer IndIcator bacterIa In FWs Wetlands
total coliforMS
fecal StrePtococcuS
EschErichia coli
MiScellaneouS Bacteria
12.5 ParasIte and vIrus removal In FWs Wetlands
ParaSiteS
viruSeS
wilDlife PathogenS
12.6 Fecal colIForm removal In ssF Wetlands
effect of vegetation
effect of DePth
effect of MeDia Size anD uniforMity
BackgrounD concentrationS
rate conStantS
SeaSonal trenDS
teMPerature coefficientS
variaBility
12.7 removal oF otHer bacterIa In ssF Wetlands
12.8 ParasIte and vIrus removal In ssF Wetlands
13.1 Petroleum Hydrocarbons
BTEX
AlkAnEs
Polycyclic AromATic HydrocArBons
13.2 cHlorinated Hydrocarbons
cHlorinATEd BEnzEnEs
cHlorinATEd ETHEnEs
13.3 organic cHemicals
EXPlosivEs
dE-icing comPounds
PHEnols
surfAcTAnTs
miscEllAnEous HydrocArBons
13.4 Pesticides
ATrAzinE
13.5 cyanide
14.1 Source characterization
IncomIng Flows
IncomIng concentratIons and loads
Hydrology oF Pulsed and seasonal systems
Flow and caPture
14.2 technology StatuS
agrIcultural stormwater
IndustrIal stormwater
14.3 tSS in event-Driven WetlanDS
Intersystem PerFormance
14.4 PhoSPhoruS in event- Driven WetlanDS
Flow Pulses
agrIcultural runoFF
14.5 nitrogen in event-Driven WetlanDS
nItrogen reductIon In urban stormwater
14.6 MetalS in event-Driven WetlanDS
14.7 PeSticiDeS in event-Driven WetlanDS
14.8 DynaMic MoDeling
varIabIlIty
SuMMary
Implementation
15.1 Historical PersPectives
First-Order MOdeling
15.2 Free Water surFace Wetlands
15.3 storMWater Wetlands
15.4 Horizontal subsurFace FloW Wetlands
the rOOt-ZOne MethOd
evOlutiOn OF hssF Wetland design in eurOpe
reFlectiOns On Old hssF design prOcedures
15.5 vertical FloW Wetlands
design OF vertical FlOW Wetlands in eurOpe
iMplied Oxygen transFer
cOMputer MOdels
15.6 coMMon design Misunderstandings
area- and vOluMe-Based rates
excursiOn cOntainMent and saFety FactOrs
15.7 a critique oF design MetHods
lOading-Based FWs siZing—an exaMple
lOading-Based FWs siZing—diFFiculties
expOnential decline MOdels
15.8 a PerForMance-based sizing algoritHM
15.9 guidelines and Manuals
OBsOlete Manuals
16.1 Project Setting
Space conSiderationS: Limited verSuS unLimited Space
SoiLS and GeoLoGy
Groundwater
BioLoGicaL conditionS
16.2 characterization oF DomeStic anD municiPal WaSteWater
SmaLL domeStic SyStemS
SmaLL FLowS
patternS oF SmaLL FLowS
16.3 characterization oF other WaSteWaterS
induStriaL waStewaterS
LandFiLL LeachateS
puLp and paper waStewater
petroLeum induStry waStewater
animaL induStry waStewaterS
Stormwater runoFF
16.4 treatment goalS
receivinG water StandardS
Groundwater diScharGeS
interFacinG to reuSe
excurSion containment and SaFety FactorS
other deSiGn parameterS
toxicity reduction in FwS wetLandS
16.5 climate anD the Water buDget
rainFaLL
SeepaGe
16.6 Selection oF WetlanD tyPe
“naturaL” verSuS “enGineered” SyStemS
FwS or hSSF?
other naturaL SyStemS
16.7 Pre- anD PoSt-treatment requirementS
wetLand SurvivaL LimitS
exceSSive SoLidS
phoSphoruS precipitateS
exceSSive nitroGen
StronG SpeciaLty chemicaLS
oxyGenation oF wetLand inFLuentS
poStwetLand reQuirementS
Summary
17.1 Pollutant Reductions and PeRfoRmance comPutations
Water Budget
Pollutant Mass Balances
Interconnected Pollutants: the case of nItrogen
desIgn ParaMeters: sources of InforMatIon
17.2 aRea comPutations
MInIMuM load reductIon crIterIon
MultIPle coMPounds of concern
17.3 cHecking tHe biogeocHemical cycles
c, n, and P cycles
17.4 cHemical suPPly constRaints
oxygen suPPly
carBon suPPly
IntersysteM PerforMance checks
17.5 adjustments foR seasonality
Wetland Water teMPerature
teMPerature coeffIcIents
rate-constant adjustMent
Monthly rate coeffIcIents
trend aMPlItudes
WInter storage versus WInter oPeratIon
17.6 stoRmWateR Wetlands
InfloW estIMatIon
hydraulIc consIderatIons
Percentage of the contrIButIng Watershed
desIgn storM detentIon
annual average PerforMance
detaIled dynaMIc sIMulatIons
floW equalIzatIon versus Pulse oPeratIon
summaRy
18.1 Physical Design
Siting
Other regulatOry COnCernS
Cultural reSOurCeS
layOut and COnfiguratiOn
fitting the WetlandS tO the Site
18.2 hyDraulics
hydrauliC PrOfileS
18.3 earThMOving: Dikes, berMs, anD levees
Berm deSign
BaSin BOttOm COntOuring: Cut and fill
linerS and rOOting media
erOSiOn and flOOd PrOteCtiOn
18.4 WaTer cOnTrOl sTrucTures
COntrOlling inflOW
SPreading the Water
OutletS
Water COlleCtiOn
level COntrOl
traSh raCkS
emergenCy OverflOWS
PumPS
18.5 sTOrMWaTer WeTlanDs
Bathymetry
COntrOl StruCtureS
SuPPlemental Water SOurCe
18.6 WeTlanD cOnsTrucTiOn
Site PreParatiOn
grading and SuBgrade PreParatiOn
liner PlaCement
rOOting SOil PlaCement
PiPing and StruCtureS
18.7 vegeTaTiOn esTablishMenT
SeleCtiOn Of PlantS
treatment POtential
diverSity
Plant PrOPaguleS and SOurCeS
Planting denSity
Planting
Plant eStaBliShment
suMMary
19.1 VegetatiVe BiodiVersity
Wetland Plants
Water regime
ProPagation
Biodiversity
19.2 WildliFe
macroinverteBrates
Fish
amPhiBians and rePtiles
Birds
mammals
19.3 desigN aNd WildliFe use
design to encourage WildliFe
design to discourage incomPatiBle WildliFe
ecological risk analysis
19.4 HuMaN use
consumPtive activities
Passive activities
19.5 desigN For aNCillary BeNeFits
siting
cell size and conFiguration
vegetation
Pretreatment
human access
examPles
20.1 PrescriPtive sizing criteria
Loading Charts
sCaLing FaCtors
EmpiriCaL Equations
20.2 PerFormance-Based Wetland sizing
BasiC appLiCation oF thE P-k-C* modEL to hssF WEtLands
WatEr BudgEt EFFECts
poLLutant mass BaLanCEs
intErConnECtEd poLLutants
20.3 accomPlisHing PerFormance- Based sizing For HssF Wetlands
ConsErvatism in dEsign
roLE oF C* in poLLutant rEduCtion
sEasonaL and stoChastiC variaBiLity
Cross-ChECks against Existing pErFormanCE data
BiogEoChEmiCaL CyCLE Constraints
20.4 vF Wetlands (intermittently loaded Beds)
dEvELopmEnt
numBEr oF BEds
20.5 vF Wetland sizing (recirculating Filters)
20.6 Biosolids Wetlands For sludge deWatering
20.7 secondary considerations
sEasonaL impaCts oF thE Biomass CyCLE
thErmaL EnErgy BaLanCE Limitations
21.1 Siting
ConstruCtion ACCess
slopes
existing utilities
FloodplAins
regulAtory issues
21.2 Layout and ConFiguration
number oF Flow pAths
operAtionAl Flexibility
treAtment redundAnCy
loAding And resting
21.3 number and type oF WetLandS in eaCh FLoW path
greAter treAtment eFFiCienCy
dividing wetlAnd Cells bAsed on slope
more thAn one wetlAnd type
stAged treAtment
21.4 CLogging dynamiCS
deFining FAilure in ssF wetlAnds
Clogging in hssF wetlAnd beds
Clogging in vF wetlAnd beds
21.5 CeLL ConFiguration
length-to-width rAtio
wetlAnd Cell depth
type And size oF bed mediA
ssF wetlAnd Cell size
21.6 SSF WetLand hydrauLiCS
hydrAuliCs oF vF And biosolids wetlAnds
21.7 FLoW diStribution and management
hssF wetlAnds
vF wetlAnds
biosolids wetlAnds
eFFluent Flow ColleCtion
wAter level Control
21.8 Liner SyStemS
thermAl ConsiderAtions
21.9 SSF WetLand ConStruCtion
elevAtions And grAding
liners
berms
vertiCAl sidewAlls
bed mediA plACement
instAllAtion oF Control struCtures
21.10 CommiSSioning and Start-up
plAnt seleCtion
vegetAtion estAblishment
22.1 Start-up
Antecedent conditions
VegetAtion stArt-Up
22.2 Monitoring
sAmpling And AnAlyses in sUpport of mAss BAlAnces
BiologicAl monitoring
monitoring VegetAtion
22.3 Water level and FloW ManageMent
flow mAnAgement
depth controllABility
wAter depth, plAnts, And nUtrient loAdings
seAsonAl depth AdjUstments
22.4 Control oF nuiSanCe aniMalS
fish
rodents
insects
22.5 vegetation ManageMent
generAl system cAre
hArVesting
weeds
BUrning
22.6 MaintenanCe oF StruCtureS
22.7 long-terM proSpeCtS
fws wetlAnds
ssf wetlAnds
22.8 aSSiStanCe to tHe operator
23.1 Capital Costs
Regional VaRiation
DiRect costs
inDiRect costs
illustRations
economy of scale
23.2 operatioN aND MaiNteNaNCe Costs
fRee WateR suRface WetlanDs
subsuRface floW WetlanDs
ssf and infiltration
vf and hssf coMbinations
25.1 AnimAl WAstes
Confined AnimAl operAtions
poultry
CAttle
dAiry operAtions
swine
Zoos
AquACulture
25.2 FOOD-PROCessing WAsteWAteRs
sugAr refining
potAto proCessing
milk produCts
meAt proCessing
Beer, wine, And spirits
VegetABles
25.3 lAnDFill leACHAte
treAtment wetlAnds for lAndfill leAChAte
design ConsiderAtions
wAter Budget ConsiderAtions
wetlAnd VegetAtion
AmmoniA remoVAl
VolAtile hydroCArBons
trACe toxiCAnts
trACe metAls
reCeiVing wAters
sCAle-up
25.4 inDustRiAl WAsteWAteRs
wood leAChAtes
pulp And pAper wAstewAters
fertiliZer mAnufACture
summARY
References
Appendix A: Lists of Basis Wetlands
Appendix B: Tracer Testing and Flow-Pattern Modeling
Index
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Treatment Wetlands

Treatment Wetlands

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