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Brain Computer Interface

Brain Computer Interface

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Published by Arun Mk

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Published by: Arun Mk on Jul 05, 2011
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07/05/2011

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CONTENTS 
1.
Brain Computer Interface.……………………………………….…2
2.
Introduction to Bionics……………………………………………..5
3.
Bionic Eye………………………………………………………….6
4.
Bionic Ear…………………………………………….……………11
5.
Bionic Hands……………………………………………………….14
6.
C-Leg……………………………………………………………....15
7.
Future of Bionics…………………………………………………..19
8.
References…………………………………………………………21
 
BRAIN-COMPUTER INTERFACE
 
Brain-Computer interface is a staple of science fiction writing.Init's earliest incarnations nomechanism was thought necessary, as the technologyseemed so far fetched that no explanation was likely. As more became known aboutthe brain however, the possibility has become more real and the science fiction moretechnically sophisticated. Recently, the cyberpunk movement has adopted the idea of "jacking in", sliding "biosoft" chips into slots implanted in the skull (Gibson, W.1984).Although such biosofts are still science fiction, there have beenseveral recent steps toward interfacing the brain and computers. Chief among theseare techniques for stimulating and recording from areas of the brain with permanentlyimplanted
electrodes
and using conscious control of 
EEG
to control computers.Some preliminary work is being done on synapsing neuronson silicon transformers and on growing neurons into neural networks on top of computer chips.The most advanced work in designing a brain-computer interface hasstemmed from the evolution of traditional electrodes. There are essentially two main problems, stimulating the brain (input) and recording from the brain (output).Traditionally, both input and output were handled byelectrodes pulled from metal wires and glass tubing.Using conventional electrodes,multi-unit recordings can be constructed from mutlibarrelled pipettes. In addition to being fragile and bulky, the electrodes in these arrays are often too far apart, as mostfine neural processes are only .1 to 2 µm apart. 
2
 
Pickard describes a new type of electrode, which circumvents many of the problems listed above. These printed circuit micro-electrodes
(PCMs)
aremanufactured in the same manner of computer chips. A design of a chip is photoreduced to produce an image on a photosensitive glass plate. This is used as amask, which covers a UV sensitive glass or plastic film.A PCM has three essential elements:1) the tissue terminals,2) a circuit board controlling or reading from the terminals3) a Input/Output controller-interpreter, such as a computer.The circuit board and computer are often located outside theskull, to minimize tissue invasion, allow for long-term implantation and permit theelectrodes to be detached between trials.In addition to the ability to make multiple,closely spaced recordings, PCMs often outperform the traditional electrodes in anumber of electronic measures .
3

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