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Nonrevenue Water Reduction (Paper William Web)

Nonrevenue Water Reduction (Paper William Web)

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Published by adbwaterforall
Convention on Water and Wastewater in South East Asia. Nonrevenue Water Reduction
Convention on Water and Wastewater in South East Asia. Nonrevenue Water Reduction

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Published by: adbwaterforall on Jul 05, 2011
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02/10/2014

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 Non-revenue Water Treatment: The Philippines Experiences
William Webb, Senior Executive Consultant  IKARI Chemicals Corporation
Background
The responsibility for providing potable water services outside Metro-Manila lies with theLocal Water Utilities Administration (LWUA). Water Districts have been establishedthroughout the Philippines to provide potable water to the populace. At present there are over six hundred (600) Water Districts providing such services. The largest Water District is theDavao City Water District (DCWD), located on the southern island of Mindanao. DCWD produces more then seventy million cubic meters of water per annum. The non-revenue water (NRW) is about twenty seven (27) per cent.The largest Water District in the Visayas Region (central islands) is the Metro Cebu Water District. The production rate being about fifty million cubic meters of water per annum.In the Luzon Region, northern islands, the largest Water District is the Dasmarinas Water District (DMWD) with a production rate about thirty million cubic meters of water per annum.Most Water Districts are reporting a non-revenue water rate of between 15 to 35 percent.
Non-revenue Water (NRW)
In the Philippines a broad concept of NRW includes sources, which after a period of time, thewater quality deteriorates ( the symptoms being mal-odor, mal-taste, staining etc.) due to theingress of iron, manganese, hydrogen sulfide, etc., causing clients to either use less water or stop using it completely. This loss of revenue is in addition to that caused by leaks, the needto flush systems etc.. Quite often such sources have borderline specifications with thePhilippine Standard for Drinking Water.
Basis of Determining NRW Data
In essence almost all Water Districts rely on data gathered from water meter readings. Water meter readings are taken at each water source and collated. From this total is deducted thereadings of meters located at each client, the difference being the NRW figure. In addition
The views expressed in this paper are the views of the authors and do notnecessarily reflect the views or policies of the Asian Development Bank(ADB), or its Board of Directors, or the governments they represent. ADB doesnot guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this paper and accepts noresponsibility for any consequences of their use. Terminology used may notnecessarily be consistent with ADB official terms.
 
individual water sources are checked in the same manner and if any individual source greatlydiffers from the average it is investigated for leaks.
Methods of overcoming NRW problems1)
 
Leaks
The Philippines lies in a volcanic area and ground movement is quite common. This actioncauses buried pipes to leak. One method used to detect such leaks has been the DigitalCorrelating Logger system. This is an advanced technique which detects leaks by noise andthen correlates the noise signals to determine the location of the leak. Data loggers are placed100 to 500 meters apart in the piping system and left overnight. The readings are then printedand analysed by trained personnel. In the Philippines the Zeta Corr system by Primayer Limited U.K. is commonly used. It has found to more successful than earlier conventionalacoustic methods which do not have correlation features.
2)
 
Flushing
Losses due to flushing can be quite significant. The need to flush systems can be due aninfection resulting from the lack of an acceptable chlorine reading near the end of a system.Other reasons for flushing include removing accumulated iron or an attempt to remove slimedeposits due to bacteria.To reduce these losses several Water Districts have changed the disinfection treatment of their water sources from chlorine to Chlorine Dioxide.There are three reasons for the change :i)
 
Chlorine forms a mixture in water which separates with time. It is often difficult, because of this phenomena, to obtain satisfactory readings at the farthest points.ii)
 
Bacteria are eliminated by the oxidation power of chlorine, however theoxidation power rapidity diminishes as the pH value of the water increases. At pH 8.0 valuechlorine is not an effective disinfectant.iii)
 
Chlorine has both oxidation and chlorination properties and will chlorinate phenols (naturally occurring in water) to produce chlorophenols which have strong odor andtaste. Humic and Fulvic acids, also naturally occurring compounds in water, react whichchlorine to form trihalomethanes (THMs) which are known carcinogens and have become aconcern in many countries.Chlorine Dioxide does not form chlorophenols or THMs and is not affected by pH value. Italso eliminates slime bacteria, particularly pseudomonas bacteria. These factors reduce theneed for flushing.
3)
 
Iron and manganese removal
Flushing may remove accumulated iron often found at the end of a piping system but it is not acure for the problem. In the Philippines a new type of catalytic filtration system has been
 
found to completely remove all iron, manganese and hydrogen sulfide. The catalyst iscontinuously regenerated with Chlorine Dioxide. Previously iron and manganese removal wasdone by oxidizing the iron with ozone and removal by multi-media filtration. While thismethod is effective, it is expensive and the iron precipitate being soft is not completelyretained by the filtration media. Often secondary fine filters (such as bag or fiber woundfilters) were installed after the media filter to remove the small quantity of iron which seepedthrough. The new catalytic filter completely retains all the iron and manganese and it is notnecessary to install a fine filter. These modern catalytic filters operate in-line with a small pressure drop and can treat water with a maximum iron and manganese content of about 15 parts per million (15 grams per cubic meter). This proven technology has shown that water sources which become contaminated can be recovered economically, thus reducing the NRW.
Determining the NRW Value
Flow meters are commonly used to determine the volume of water produced and the meteredquantity consumed by the clients and assuming that the difference is the NRW. The weaknessof this method is that the accuracy of the flow meters is such that a high NRW value may beindicated whereas it may be much lower. The meters generally installed at the consumers’ premises have an error which is greater than the meter installed at the source. Other factorssuch as temperature, air in the system, mechanical wear of meter parts etc. can increase theerror. These possible variants are not normally taken into account when assessing the NRWvalue.This kind of difficulty in assessing the NRW value is likely to continue for some time since amore accurate flow meter is likely to be too expensive to be provided to consumers.To reduce the meter error problem, the Laguna Water District located south of Metro Manilahas installed a consumer meter calibration system. The system has proven to be verysuccessful and it is being upgraded so that larger meters can be calibrated at a given constant pressure. Other Water Districts are studying the possibility of establishing calibrationfacilities for water meters.There is a close relationship between power consumed when water is pumped to consumers;and the quantity of water pumped. Relationships like these are being evaluated to see if theycan help in assessing an accurate NRW value.SUMMARY NRW reduction techniques
 
Frequent consumer meter calibration at a given pressure to give a more accurate NRWvalue.
 
Disinfection with Chlorine Dioxide
 
Consistent residual reading throughout system
 
Eliminates slime. Reduces flushing
 
Use of digital correlation logger to locate leaks which are difficult to find

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