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Functional English by Bilal Dar

Functional English by Bilal Dar

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Published by Bilal Dar

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Published by: Bilal Dar on Jul 05, 2011
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06/15/2014

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1. Functional English:
Different words perform different functions in a sentence. The study of thesefunctions is called functional English.(e.g.)
 I play cricke
.
(
Subject)(Verb)(Object)2. Sentence:
A group of words, which gives a complete sense, is called sentence.(e.g.)
The sky is blue.
3. Kinds of sentences:
Following are four kinds of sentences:
i-Declarative sentenceii-Interrogative sentenceiii-Imperative sentenceiv-Exclamatory sentence
 
4. Declarative sentence: 
A sentence that makes a statement is called declarative sentence.(e.g.)
This is my car.
5. Interrogative sentence:
A sentence that is used to ask a question is called interrogative sentence.(e.g.)
What is your good name?
6. Imperative sentence:
A sentence that makes a command or request is called imperative sentence.(e.g.)
Could you please, bring me a glass of water?
7. Exclamatory sentence:
A sentence that expresses strong feelings is called exclamatory sentence.(e.g.)
What a shame!
8. Use of exclamatory mark after an imperative sentence:
If the command in an imperative sentence is short and sharp, an exclamatory mark is used at the end of the sentence.(e.g.)
Get lost!
 
9. Parts of a sentence:
A sentence can be divided in to two parts i.e. subject and predicate.(e.g.)
Usman plays cricket 
.
(Subject) (Predicate)
 
10. Subject:
Subject is the name of a thing, a person or a place about which something is saidin a sentence.(e.g.)
Usman plays cricket 
.
(Subject)
 
11. Predicate:
The part of a sentence that tells something about the subject is called predicate.(e.g.)
Usman plays cricket 
.
(Predicate)
 
12. Place of subject in a sentence:
Usually the subject is written first and sometimes after the predicate.(e.g.)
Tahir stood in the doorway.
(Usual order)(e.g.)
 In the doorway stood a stranger.
(Unusual order)
 
13. Sentence without subject:
In imperative sentence the subject is left out.(e.g.)
Get lost!
 
["You" is understood here]
14. Sentence fragment:
A group of words that does not give a complete sense is called sentence fragment.(e.g.)
in the play ground.
15. Simple subject:
If the subject consists of more than one word, the key word is called simplesubject.(e.g.) (
The
 students
of the class) are there.16. Simple predicate:
If the predicate consists of more than one word, the key word is simple predicate.The main verb is always simple predicate.(e.g.)
I (
 play
 
cricket daily.)
 
17. Complete Subject:
A subject may be one word or more than one word as a complete subject.(e.g.)
 Students
laughed.
(e.g.)
 Students of the class
laughed.
 
18. Complete predicate:
A predicate may be one word or more than one word as a complete predicate.(e.g.)
Students
laughed 
.
(e.g.)
Students
laughed in the class room
.
 
19. Compound subject:
A compound subject may have two or more nouns.(e.g.)
 Noman
and
Usman
went to Lahore.
 
20. Compound predicate / Compound verb:
A compound predicate may have to or more verbs.(e.g.)
I
completed 
my work and
 slept 
.
 
21. Order of subject in interrogative sentences:
In some interrogative sentences, subject is written first.(e.g.)
Who
 
will play cricket?
And in some some interrogative sentences, subject is written after helping verb.(e.g.)
Do
 she
listen music?22. Parts of speech:
Words are divided into different kinks are called part of speech. Noun, Pronoun, Verb, Adverb, Adjective, Preposition, Interjection and Conjunction
23. Noun:
 Noun the name of a person, place or thing.(e.g.)
Ali, Lahore, Love, Pen, Allama Iqbal.24. Kinds of Noun:
i. Common noun ii. Proper noun iii. Collective noun iv. Abstract noun
25. Common noun:
Common noun refers to the name of an ordinary person, place or thing.(e.g.)
Boy, School, Pen.26. Proper noun:
Proper noun refers to a particular person. Place or thing.(e.g.)
Allama Iqbal, Lahore, F-16.
 
27. Collective noun:
Common noun refers to a group of people or things as a single noun.(e.g.)
Army, Team, Club.28. Abstract noun:
Abstract noun refers to immaterial things.(e.g.)
Knowledge, Beauty, Love, Truth. 29
.
Adjective as a noun:
The + Adjective can be used as a noun.(e.g.)
The injured were taken to the hospital.30. Compound noun:
Compound noun refers to the combination of two or more nouns as a single noun
.
(e.g.)
Compact disk, Seafood.31. Uncountable or Mass noun:
Uncountable or Mass noun refers to the noun that can not be counted.(e.g.)
Cream, Love, Gold.32. Genders:
There are four genders as under:i.Masculine gendeii.Feminine gendeiii.Common gendeiv.Neuter gende
 
33. Masculine gender:
Masculine gender refers to male.(e.g.)
man, Lion, Horse.
 
34.
 
Feminine gender:
Feminine gender refers to female.(e.g.)
Woman, Hen, Lioness.
 
35. Common gender:
Common gender refers to either masculine gender or feminine gender.(e.g.)
Friend, Teacher, Doctor.
 
36. Neuter gender:
 Neuter gender neither refers to masculine gender and not feminine gender.(e.g.)
Book, Pen, Table.
 
37. Pronoun:
A word that takes the place of a noun is called pronoun.(e.g.) Ahmad is a good boy. He is a student.
 
38. Antecedent:A pronoun usually refers to a noun is called antecedent.(e.g.) Zahid loves his country. He is patriot.
 
39. Personal pronoun:
A pronoun that represents a person in a sentence is called personal pronoun.(e.g.) I, We, You, They, He, She, It.
 
40. Indefinite pronoun:
A pronoun having no specific object or event.(e.g.) All, Each, Every.
41. Interrogative pronoun:
Interrogative pronoun that is used to ask a question.(e.g.) who, Whom, What, Which.

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