HOW TO MAKECHEESE?
IT'S EASY …..
The basic principle involved in making all natural cheese is to coagulate or curdle themilk so that it forms into curds and whey. As anyone knows who has left milk un-refrigerated for a period, milk will curdle quite naturally. The milk sours and forms into anacid curd. . Today's methods help the curdling process by the addition of a starter (a bacterialculture which produces lactic acid) and rennet the coagulating enzyme which speeds theseparation of liquids (whey) and solids (curds). There are two basic categories of startercultures. Hemophilic starter cultures have microbes that can not surviveat high temperatures and thrive at room temperatures. Examples of cheeses made withthese bacteria are Cheddar and Gouda. Hemophilic starter cultures are heat-lovingbacteria. They are used when the curd is cooked to as high as 132oF. Examples of cheeses made from these bacteria are Swiss and Italian cheeses. . The least sophisticated cheeses are the fresh, unripe Ned varieties typified by CottageCheese. These are made by warming the milk and letting it stand, treating it with a lacticstarter to help the acid development and then cutting and draining the whey from thecheese. The cheese can then be salted and eaten fresh. This is the simplest, most basicform of cheese.
enerally, cheese making starts with acidification. This is the lowering of the pH(increasing acid content) of the milk, making it more acidic. Classically, this process isperformed by bacteria. Bacteria feed on the lactose in milk and produce lactic acid as awaste product. With time, increasing amounts of lactic acid lower the pH of the milk.Acid is essential to the production of good cheese. However, if there is too much acid inthe milk the cheese will be crumbly. If not enough acid is present the curd will be pasty.
After acidification, coagulation begins. Coagulation is converting milk into curds andwhey. As the pH of the milk changes, the structural nature of the casein proteins changes,leading to curd formation. Essentially, the casein proteins in the milk form a curd thatentraps fat and water. Although acid alone is capable of causing coagulation, the mostcommon method is enzyme coagulation. The physical properties of enzyme-coagulatedmilk are better than that coagulated purely with acid. Curds produced by enzymecoagulation achieve lower moisture content without excessive hardening. .Enzymes used to coagulate milk come from a number of sources: animals, plants, andfungi. The traditional source of enzyme is rennet. Rennet is a preparation made from thelining of the fourth stomach of calves. The most important enzyme in rennet is chymosin. Today, most chymosin is a recombinant product made possible by genetic engineering.Until 1990, the only source of rennin was calves. Around 1990, scientists created asystem to make chymosin that doesn't require calves. Using genetic engineering, thegene for chymosin was cut from a calf cell and inserted into the genomes of bacteria andyeast. The microbes make an exact copy of the calf chymosin. Microbes replicate and