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Table Of Contents

Chapter 1
Introduction
1.1 Overview
1.2 Ubiquitous Computing
1.3 Interaction in Ubiquitous Computing
1.4 Context-Awareness is an Enabling Technology
1.5 Challenges in Context-Aware Computing
1.6 Awareness of Artefacts
2.1 Visions: Computing Beyond the Desktop
2.1.1 Ubiquitous Computing
2.1.2 The Invisible Computer and Computing Appliances
2.1.3 Disappearing Computer
2.1.4 Computing in Everyday Environments – Context matters
2.2 The Notion of Context
2.2.1 Schilit: Applications Exploit the Changing Environment
2.2.2 University of Kent: from Location to Context
2.2.3 Lancaster University: Guide Project
2.2.4 Anind Dey: Supporting Context-Awareness
2.2.5 A Semi-Formal Approach to Context
2.2.6 Context – A Changing Concept
2.2.7 Our Understanding of Context – an Evolution
2.2.7.1 A Working Model for Context-Aware Mobile Computing
2.2.7.2 Reconsidering Dimensions – Project TEA
2.2.7.3 Revising the Model and Further Issues
2.3 Context Related Research Initiatives and Projects
2.3.1 Ubicomp Experiment at PARC
2.3.2 Sentient computing, Cambridge
2.3.3 Aware Home and Further Context Research at Gatech
2.3.4 Human Centred Computing, Project Oxygen at the MIT
2.3.5 Further Projects on Context
2.4 Methodology and Evaluation
2.5 Discussion
2.6 Summary and Conclusions
Chapter 3
Acquiring Context using Sensors
3.1 Perception and Cognition in Nature
3.2 Sensing Situations and Representing Context
3.3 Sensor Data is Related to Situations and Thus to Context
3.4 Requirements on Sensing in a Ubiquitous Computing
3.4.1 Design and Usability
3.4.2 Energy Consumption
3.4.3 Calibration
3.4.4 Start-up Time
3.4.5 Robustness and Reliability
3.4.6 Portability, Size and Weight
3.4.7 Unobtrusiveness, Social Acceptance and User Concern
3.4.8 Price and Introduced Cost
3.4.9 Precision and Openness
3.5 Sensing Technologies and Systems for Data Capture
3.5.1 Light and Vision
3.5.2 Audio
3.5.3 Movement and Acceleration
3.5.4 Location and Position
3.5.5 Magnetic Field and Orientation
3.5.6 Proximity, Touch and User Interaction
3.5.7 Temperature, Humidity and Air Pressure
3.5.8 Weight
3.5.9 Motion Detection
3.5.10 Gas-Sensors and Electronic Noses
3.5.11 Bio-Sensors
3.5.12 Zero-Power Sensors
3.6 Composition of Sensing Systems
3.7.5 Rule Based Systems
3.8 A Perception Architecture for Context-Aware Systems
3.8.1 Sensor Layer
3.8.2 Cue Layer
3.8.3 Context Layer
3.8.3.1 Learning
3.9 Discussion
3.10 Summary
Chapter 4
Modelling and Prototyping
4.1 Context and Entities
4.2 A Conceptual Model: Bottom-up Context
4.3 An Implementation Model: Context Aware Artefacts
4.4 Prototyping Context Aware Artefacts
4.4.1 Context-aware Mobile Phone
4.4.1.1 Phase 1: TEA Feasibility Study
Sensor Board Hardware
Off-line Data Acquisition
Real-time Demonstrator
4.4.1.2 Phase 2: Prototyping a Context-Aware Phone
Hardware
Software
Demonstration and Evaluation
4.4.2 Weight laboratory – Context-Aware Floor and Furniture
4.4.2.1 Load Sensing Feasibility Study
Determining 2-D Position of Objects on Surfaces
Recognising Interaction on a Load Sensing Surface
4.4.2.2 Prototyping a Weight Laboratory
Weight Floor
Weight Tables and Shelves
(bottom). Close ups of the load cells and how they are fixed (right)
4.4.2.3 Lessons learned for load sensing
4.5 Learning from Prototypes – Generalising the Approach
4.5.1 Pattern Languages
4.5.2 A Pattern Language to Describe Contexts and Awareness
4.6 Patterns of aware artefacts
4.7 Artefacts Become a Part of the Application
5.1.3 Ready-Made Deployable Rapid Prototyping Devices
5.2 Context Acquisition Libraries
5.2.1 Architectural Frameworks
5.2.2 Hardware Library
5.2.2.1 Processing Cores and Memory Units
5.2.2.2 Sensor Blocks
5.2.2.3 Communication
5.2.3 Software library
5.2.3.1 Program Templates
5.2.3.2 Sensor Drivers
5.2.3.3 Communication Drivers
5.2.3.4 Perception Library
5.2.3.5 Backend Software Libraries
5.3 Context Acquisition Design Method and Tool support
5.3.1 Design Steps and Decisions
5.3.1.1 Method
5.3.1.2 Cost Function
5.4 A Rapid Prototyping Platform for Context Acquisition
5.4.1 The Smart-Its Idea
5.4.2 Lancaster Smart-It Family
5.4.2.1 Rapid Prototyping System Architecture
5.4.2.2 Core Board
5.4.2.3 General Sensor Board
Figure 18: Sensor board block diagram (left). Completed sensor board (right)
5.4.2.4 Load Sensor Board
5.4.2.5 Further Add-On Boards
5.4.2.6 Communication & Backend Integration
5.5 Discussion
5.6 Summary and Conclusion
Chapter 6
6.1 Human Understanding of Context
6.1.1 Spatial Issues
6.1.2 Temporal Issues
6.2 Properties and Principles of Context in a Distributed System
6.2.1 Locality and Proximity
6.2.2 Time
6.2.3 Independence Between Acquisition and Use
6.2.4 Distribution and Scalability
6.2.5 Transparency
6.3 Describing and Accessing Context
6.3.1 Describing Context
6.3.2 Content-Based Access to Context
6.4 Modelling the Distribution of Context
6.4.1 Fuzzy Sets
6.4.2 Relevance Based on Time Difference
6.4.3 Relevance Based on Distance
6.4.4 Transparency
6.4.5 Requirements
6.5 FuzzySpace – A Distributed Communication Platform
6.5.1 Architecture
6.5.2 FuzzySpace
6.5.2.1 Operators
6.5.2.2 Message Producer
6.5.2.3 Message Consumer
6.6 A Distributed Context Platform based on FuzzySpace
6.6.1 Architecture
6.6.2 Context Supplier
6.6.3 Context consumer
6.6.4 Context Abstractor
6.7 A Context Library
6.8 Discussion
6.9 Summary and Conclusion
Chapter 7
Interactive Context-Aware Systems
7.1 Interaction and Interactive Applications
7.1.1 Traditional and Explicit Human Computer Interaction
7.1.2 Excurse: Interaction and Communication Between Humans
7.1.2.1 Shared Knowledge
7.1.2.2 Communication Errors and Recovery
7.1.2.3 Situation and Context
7.2 The Concept of Implicit Human Computer Interaction (iHCI)
7.2.1 Motivation and Examples of iHCI
7.2.2 Analyzing iHCI
7.2.3 The iHCI Model
7.3 Application Areas for Sensor-based Context-Awareness and iHCI
7.3.1 Proactive Applications, Trigger and Control
7.3.2 Adaptive UIs
7.3.2.1 UI adaptation for Distributed Settings
7.3.2.2 UI adaptation in a Single Display
7.3.3 User Interruption
7.3.4 Communication Application
7.3.5 Resource Management
7.3.6 Generation of Meta Data, Capture
7.4 A Basic Problem: Pull vs. Push
7.4.1 Pulling for Context
7.4.2 Getting Context Pushed
7.4.3 Combining Push and Pull
7.5 Humans and Invisible Computing
7.5.1 How to Perceive Invisibility
7.5.2 The Invisibility Dilemma
7.6 Discussion
7.7 Summary and Conclusion
Chapter 8
Evaluation
8.1 Evaluating Ubiquitous Computing Systems
8.1.1 Basic Evaluation Problems
8.1.1.1 Evaluation in Context
8.1.1.2 Multi Causality
8.1.1.3 Evaluation Goal
8.1.2 Methods Used
8.1.2.1 Pre-implementation Evaluation
8.1.2.2 Sub-system Evaluation
8.1.2.3 Overall System Evaluation
Single domain focus
System Feasibility
Prototyping
Living Lab
Deployment and Studies
8.2 Evaluation of prototypes
8.2.1 Probing Prototypes, Probing Concepts
8.2.2 Qualitative Evaluation of Prototypes
8.3 Revisiting the Hypotheses
8.3.1 On Context Acquisition
8.3.2 Context Modelling
8.3.3 Rapid Prototyping of Context Aware Systems
8.4 Discussion
8.5 Summary and Conclusions
Chapter 9
Conclusions
9.1 Contribution and Results
9.1.1 Understanding research in Ubiquitous Computing
9.1.2 Architectures, Platforms, Methods and Tools
9.1.3 Interaction with the Ubiquitous Computer
9.2 Future work
9.2.1 Towards a Semantic Context Model
9.2.2 Creating a Physical Interface Toolkit
9.2.3 Further issues
9.3 Concluding remarks
References
Appendix
Appendix A: Perception
Appendix A.1: Time Domain Analysis
Appendix A.2: A Simplified Rule Set
Appendix A.3: Recognising Events on a Surface
Appendix B: Load Sensing System
Appendix C: Patterns
Appendix C.7: Context Pattern #7,
Appendix D: Building Blocks and Libraries
Appendix D.1: Hardware Building Blocks HWcore
Appendix D.2: Sensor Building Blocks HWsensor
Appendix D.3: Communication Building Blocks HWcomm
Appendix D.4: Core Libraries SWcore
Appendix D.5: Sensor Drivers SWsensor
Appendix D.6: Communication Drivers SWcomm
Appendix E: Schematics
Appendix E.1: Core Board Schematic
Appendix E.2: Mini Core Board Schematic
Appendix E.3: General Sensor Board Schematic
Appendix E.4: Load Sensing Add-On Schematic
Figure 40: Schematic of the load sensing Add-On board
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Albrecht Schmidt PhD-Thesis Ubiquitous-Computing Print1

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