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5.3 - Populations

5.3 - Populations

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Published by IB Screwed
IB Biology notes on populations
IB Biology notes on populations

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: IB Screwed on Jul 06, 2011
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05/19/2014

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5.3 - Populations
5.3.1 - Outline how population size is affected by natality, immigration, mortality and emigration
Population can be affected by:
Natality
Or
birth
. This is because as the birth rate increases, the population increases. This increase is exponential, so as the population increases, the birth rate increases accordingly.
Immigration
This is the arrival of organisms to the population from another area, adding to the numbers of the total population
Mortality
Or
death
. The mortality rate also increases as the population increases.
Emigration
This is when a part of the population migrates to another area. Along with mortality, this helps to stabilise the population growth. A population is stable when:
Natality + Immigration = Mortality + Emigration
 
5.3.2 - Draw and label a graph showing a sigmoid (S-shaped) population growth curve
At the beginning, the is a short lag phase, as the population adapt to their environment
Exponential Phase
Also called the log phase. This is when there are low or reduced limiting factors, allowing the population to expand exponentially in the habitat. It may be increasing by 2n where n = number of generations. In these circumstances, the rate of natality and immigration is higher than mortality and emigration. However, emigration and mortality will not = 0. During this time, little waste product accumulates, and there is adequate nutrients. These conditions are typical of a population of germinating annual plants in a new season. Also, a bacterial population during the initial phases of an infection, or of any species occupying a previously unoccupied habitat (succession)
Transition Stage
Also called the linear growth phase. During this time, resources are reduced and the growth of the population becomes limited. This comes as a result of increased competition as the population grows. Some individuals will survive, who obtain the resources, while others will not. This produces a lower rate of population growth than that observed in the exponential phase.

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