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Introduction to Linux

Introduction to Linux

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Published by: dmz on Jul 06, 2011
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Introduction to Linux
A Hands on Guide
Machtelt Garrels
CoreSequence.com
<tille@coresequence.com>
Version 1.15 20040709 EditionCopyright © 2002, 2003, 2004 Machtelt GarrelsFirst published December 2002
 
Table of Contents
Introduction.........................................................................................................................................................1
1. Why this guide?...................................................................................................................................12. Who should read this book?.................................................................................................................13. New versionsand availability..............................................................................................................14. Revision History..................................................................................................................................25. Contributions.......................................................................................................................................36. Feedback..............................................................................................................................................47. Copyright inf ormation.........................................................................................................................48. What do you need?...............................................................................................................................59. Conventions used in this document.....................................................................................................510. Organizationof this document...........................................................................................................6
Chapter 1. What is Linux?.................................................................................................................................8
1.1. History..............................................................................................................................................81.1.1. UNIX.......................................................................................................................................81.1.2. Linus andLinux.......................................................................................................................91.1.3. Current application of Linux systems...................................................................................101.2. The user interface............................................................................................................................101.2.1. Is Linux difficult?..................................................................................................................101.2.2. Linux fornon−experienced users..........................................................................................111.3. Does Linuxhave a future?..............................................................................................................111.3.1. Open Source..........................................................................................................................111.3.2. Ten yearsof experience at your service................................................................................121.4. Properties of Linux.........................................................................................................................131.4.1. Linux Pros.............................................................................................................................131.4.2. Linux Cons............................................................................................................................141.5. Linux Flavors..................................................................................................................................151.5.1. Linuxand GNU.....................................................................................................................151.5.2. GNU/ Linux............................................................................................................................161.5.3. Which distribution should I install?......................................................................................161.6. Summary.........................................................................................................................................171.7. Exercises.........................................................................................................................................17
Chapter 2. Quickstart.......................................................................................................................................19
2.1. Logging in, activating the user interface and logging out..............................................................192.1.1. Introduction...........................................................................................................................192.1.2. Graphicalmode.....................................................................................................................192.1.3. Text mode..............................................................................................................................212.2. Absolute basics...............................................................................................................................212.2.1. The commands......................................................................................................................212.2.2. General remarks....................................................................................................................222.2.3. Using Bash features...............................................................................................................232.3. Getting help.....................................................................................................................................242.3.1. Be warned..............................................................................................................................242.3.2. The man pages.......................................................................................................................242.3.3. More info...............................................................................................................................262.4. Summary.........................................................................................................................................292.5. Exercises.........................................................................................................................................30
Introduction to Linuxi
 
Chapter 2. Quickstart
2.5.1. Connecting and disconnecting...............................................................................................302.5.2. Passwords..............................................................................................................................302.5.3. Directories.............................................................................................................................302.5.4. Files.......................................................................................................................................312.5.5. Getting help...........................................................................................................................31
Chapter 3. About files andthe file system......................................................................................................33
3.1. General overview of the Linux file system.....................................................................................333.1.1. Files.......................................................................................................................................333.1.2. About partitioning.................................................................................................................343.1.3. More filesystem layout.........................................................................................................373.2. Orientation in the file system..........................................................................................................403.2.1. The path.................................................................................................................................403.2.2. Absoluteand relative paths...................................................................................................423.2.3. The mostimportant files and directories...............................................................................423.2.4. The most important configuration files.................................................................................453.2.5. The mostcommon devices....................................................................................................473.2.6. The mostcommon variable files...........................................................................................483.3. Manipulating files...........................................................................................................................493.3.1. Viewing f ile properties..........................................................................................................493.3.2. Creating and deleting files and directories............................................................................513.3.3. Finding files...........................................................................................................................553.3.4. More ways to view file content.............................................................................................593.3.5. Linking files..........................................................................................................................603.4. File security.....................................................................................................................................623.4.1. Access rights: Linux's first line of defense............................................................................623.4.2. The tools................................................................................................................................643.5. Summary.........................................................................................................................................693.6. Exercises.........................................................................................................................................703.6.1. Partitions................................................................................................................................703.6.2. Paths......................................................................................................................................703.6.3. Tour of the system.................................................................................................................703.6.4. Manipulating files..................................................................................................................713.6.5. File permissions.....................................................................................................................71
Chapter 4. Processes.........................................................................................................................................72
4.1. Processes insideout........................................................................................................................724.1.1. Multi−user and multi−tasking...............................................................................................724.1.2. Process types.........................................................................................................................724.1.3. Process attributes...................................................................................................................744.1.4. Displaying process information.............................................................................................754.1.5. Life and death of a process....................................................................................................774.1.6. SUID andSGID.....................................................................................................................794.2. Boot process, Init and shutdown.....................................................................................................814.2.1. Introduction...........................................................................................................................814.2.2. The boot process....................................................................................................................814.2.3. GRUB features......................................................................................................................82
Introduction to Linuxii

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