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08-4917 Complete Opn

08-4917 Complete Opn

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Published by: housingworks on Jul 06, 2011
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05/19/2012

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*
Named officials have been substituted for their predecessors pursuant to Fed. R. App. P.43(c)(2).
**
The Clerk of Court is directed to amend the official caption to read as shown above.
 
08-4917-cvAlliance for Open Society International v. U.S. Agencyfor International Development
UNITED
 
STATES
 
COURT
 
OF
 
APPEALS
1
FOR THE
S
ECOND
C
IRCUIT
2 _____________________ 34August Term, 201056(Argued: December 9, 2010 Decided: July 6, 2011)78Docket No. 08-4917-cv910 _____________________ 1112A
LLIANCE FOR 
O
PEN
S
OCIETY
I
 NTERNATIONAL
,
 
I
 NC
.,
 
P
ATHFINDER 
I
 NTERNATIONAL
,
 
G
LOBAL
13H
EALTH
C
OUNCIL
,
 
I
 NTER 
A
CTION
,1415
 Plaintiffs-Appellees
,1617O
PEN
S
OCIETY
I
 NSTITUTE
,1819
 Plaintiff 
 
,2021v.2223U
 NITED
S
TATES
A
GENCY FOR 
I
 NTERNATIONAL
D
EVELOPMENT
,
 
AJIV
S
HAH
,
*
 
in his official24capacity as Administrator of the U.S. Agency for International Development, and his successors,25U
 NITED
S
TATES
C
ENTERS FOR 
D
ISEASE
C
ONTROL AND
P
REVENTION
,
 
T
HOMAS
R.
 
F
RIEDEN
,
 
in his26official capacity as Director of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and his27successors, U
 NITED
S
TATES
D
EPARTMENT OF
H
EALTH AND
H
UMAN
S
ERVICES
,
 
ATHLEEN
28S
EBELIUS
,
 
in her official capacity as Secretary of the U.S. Department of Health and Human29Services, and her successors,3031
 Defendants-Appellants
.
**
3233Before: S
TRAUB
,
 
P
OOLER 
,
 
and
 
B.D.
 
P
ARKER 
,
Circuit Judges
.3435 ___________________ 36
 
2Appeal from preliminary injunctions entered by the United States District Court for the1Southern District of New York (Marrero,
 J 
 
.) enjoining Defendants-Appellants from enforcing 222U.S.C. § 7631(f), a provision of the United States Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis,3and Malaria Act of 2003, 22 U.S.C. § 7601
et seq.
, against Plaintiffs-Appellees, on the ground4that § 7631(f), as applied to Plaintiffs-Appellees, violates the First Amendment.56AFFIRMED.78Judge Straub dissents in a separate opinion.9 __________________ 1011
EBEKAH
D
ILLER 
,
 
Brennan Center for Justice at NYU12School of Law, New York, NY (Laura K. Abel,13Alicia L. Bannon, David S. Udell, Brennan Center 14for Justice at NYU School of Law, New York, NY;15David W. Bowker, Sue-Yun Ahn, Wilmer Cutler 16Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP, Washington, D.C.;17Jason D. Hirsch, Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and18Dorr LLP, New York, NY,
on the brief 
),
 for 
19
 Plaintiffs-Appellees
.2021B
ENJAMIN
H.
 
T
ORRANCE
, Assistant United States22Attorney for the Southern District of New York 23(David S. Jones, Assistant United States Attorney,24
of counsel 
; Preet Bharara, United States Attorney,25
on the brief 
),
 for Defendants-Appellants
.2627Lenora M. Lapidus, Women’s Rights Project, American28Civil Liberties Union, New York, NY (Mie Lewis,29Women’s Rights Project, American Civil Liberties30Union, New York, NY; Arthur N. Eisenberg, Alexis31Karterton, New York Civil Liberties Union, New32York, NY; James Esseks, Rose Saxe, LGBT and33AIDS Project, American Civil Liberties Union,34 New York, NY,
on the brief 
),
 for Amici Curiae
35
 American Humanist Association and 24 Other 
36
 Public Health and Human Rights Organizations
37
and Experts
.3839Lawrence S. Lustberg (Eileen M. Connor,
on the brief 
),40Gibbons P.C., Newark, NJ,
 for Amicus Curiae
41
 Independent Sector 
.42 ______________________________________________________________________________ 43
 
3B
ARRINGTON
D.
 
P
ARKER 
,
 
Circuit Judge
:1Defendants-Appellants the U.S. Agency for International Development (“USAID”), the2U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (“HHS”), and the U.S. Centers for Disease3Control and Prevention (“CDC”) (collectively, the “Agencies” or “Defendants”) appeal from4 preliminary injunctions entered by the United States District Court for the Southern District of 5 New York (Marrero,
 J 
.). The district court enjoined the Agencies from enforcing 22 U.S.C.6§ 7631(f), a provision of the United States Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and7Malaria Act of 2003 (“Leadership Act”), 22 U.S.C. § 7601
et seq.
, against Plaintiffs-Appellees8Alliance for Open Society International, Inc. (“AOSI”), Pathfinder International (“Pathfinder”),9Global Health Council (“GHC”), and InterAction. These are non-governmental organizations10(“NGOs”) engaged in the international fight against HIV/AIDS that receive funding under the11Act.12Section 7631(f) of the Leadership Act provides that “[n]o funds made available to carry13out this Act . . . may be used to provide assistance to any group or organization that does not14have a policy explicitly opposing prostitution.” This provision, as construed and implemented15 by the Agencies, requires NGOs, as a condition of receiving Leadership Act funds, to adopt a16 policy explicitly opposing prostitution, and prohibits recipients from engaging in any activities17that are “inconsistent” with an anti-prostitution stance. Certain other recipients of Leadership18Act funds, such as the World Health Organization, are not bound by this restriction.19As explained below, we conclude that § 7631(f), as implemented by the Agencies, falls20well beyond what the Supreme Court and this Court have upheld as permissible conditions on21the receipt of government funds. Section 7631(f) does not merely require recipients of 22

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