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SAP R3 Performance Optimization the Official SAP Guide

SAP R3 Performance Optimization the Official SAP Guide

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Published by: J Agostinho O Junior on Jul 07, 2011
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Chapter 2:Monitoring Hardware, Database,and R/3 Basis
This chapter explains how to monitor and analyze the performance of your hardware,database, R/3 memory management, and R/3 work processes. Procedure roadmapssummarize the most important analysis paths and clarify when to use the variousmonitors.
Simple recommendations are provided to help you optimize each component, unlessmore in-depth explanations are required (these are given in subsequent chapters).In this chapter, background information is intentionally kept to a minimum. This meansthat even application consultants or system administrators with limited experience inperformance analysis can use this chapter to improve the performance of their R/3System. For example, monitoring and customizing R/3 extended memory is describedwithout explaining R/3 extended memory in detail. For more background information, seeChapters 5 to 9.At SAP, our experience suggests that you can solve many performance problems in theoperating system, database, and R/3 Basis using simple instructions, without referring tovery many technical details.
The main tools for analyzing performance are the R/3 performance monitors. While thesecan be accessed in various ways, they are conveniently grouped together on the
Performance menu 
. To access this menu, use Transaction
, or, from the R/3 initialscreen, choose either of the following menu paths:
Performance menu
When Should You Read This Chapter?
You should read this chapter if you want to use R/3 to technically monitor and optimize theperformance of your R/3 System, database, or operating system.
Basic Terms
This section explains the way some basic terms are used throughout this book:computer, R/3 instance, database, application server, database instance, database server,and server.A computer is a physical machine with a CPU, a main memory, and an IPaddress.An R/3 instance is a logical unit. It consists of a set of R/3 work processes that areadministered by a dispatcher process. It also consists of a set of R/3 buffers located in thecomputer’s shared memory and accessed by the R/3 work processes. On one computer,there can be multiple R/3 instances and therefore multiple dispatchers and multiple setsof buffers. An application server is a computer with one or more R/3 instances.
The term application server is sometimes used in other literaturewhere this book uses the term R/3 instance.Every R/3 System has only one database. The term database refers to the set of data that is organized, for example, in files. The database may be thought of as thepassive part of the database system, while the active part is the database instance, alogical unit that allows access to the database.This database instance consists of database processes with a common set of database buffers in the shared memory of a computer. A database server is a computerwith one or more database instances. A computer can be both a database server and anapplication server if a database instance and an R/3 instance run on it.In the R/3 environment, there is normally only one database instance for eachdatabase. Examples of database systems where multiple database instances can access adatabase are DB2/390 and Oracle Parallel Server. The special features of these paralleldatabase systems are not covered in this book.Throughout R/3 literature, the term server is used in both a hardware sense and asoftware sense. Thus, server can refer to a physical computer as a hardware entity. This isoften intended, for example, with the term database server. With reference to client/serversoftware architecture, however, server can also be used to refer to a logical service. Thisis usually intended, for example, when using the terms message server or ATP server.
Monitoring Hardware
The Operating System Monitor is the tool for analyzing hardware bottlenecks andoperating-system performance problems. To call the Operating System Monitorto monitor the R/3 application server you are currently logged on to, useTransaction
, or, from the R/3 initial screen, choose:
Tools Ø Administration Ø Monitor Ø Performance Ø Operating system Ø LocalØ Activity
 The screen
 Local OS monitor 
appears, which is the initial screen of the OperatingSystem Monitor.To start the Operating System Monitor for a database server or an applicationserver other than the one you are logged on to, use Transaction
, or, from theR/3 initial screen, choose:
Tools Ø Administration Ø Monitor Ø Performance Ø Operating system Ø Remote Ø Activity
 After selecting the desired server, the screen
 Local OS Monitor 
for that serverwill appear.Alternatively, to call the Operating System Monitor from the server overview, useTransaction
, or, from the R/3 initial screen, choose:
Tools Ø Administration Ø Monitor Ø System Monitoring Ø Servers
 Mark the desired application server and choose
OS collector 
Analyzing CPU and Paging
 The main screen of the Operating System Monitor (see Figure 2.1) lists the mostimportant performance data for the operating system and the hardware. All thedata is renewed every 10 seconds by the auxiliary program
, but toupdate the data on the screen (after 10 seconds or longer), choose
 Refresh display
Figure 2.1:
Main screen of the Operating System Monitor (Transaction
CPU Workload
 Under the header
in the Operating System Monitor initial screen, thepercentage of 
CPU Utilization
is indicated for
user, system,
. Thesevalues indicate what percentage of the total CPU capacity is currently: Being consumed by processes such as R/3 work processes or database processes(
)Being consumed by the operating system (
)• Not being consumed (
)Under the header
, the field
indicates the number of processors.
 Load average
is the average number of work processes waiting for a free processor,and is indicated for the previous minute, 5 minutes, and 15 minutes. The othervalues listed under
are less significant for analyzing system performance.

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