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Performances Evaluation of Inter-System Handover between IEEE802.16e and IEEE802.11 Networks

Performances Evaluation of Inter-System Handover between IEEE802.16e and IEEE802.11 Networks

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Published by ijcsis
This article presents the mechanisms to be implemented for analyzing the performances of the inter-system handover between WiFi and WiMAX networks. The presence of an entity of handover is significant so that the mobile terminal supports both technologies enabling it to make heterogeneous transfers. In this paper, we propose the development of a software platform able to manage the interoperability between WiMAX and WiFi with uninterrupted communication.
This article presents the mechanisms to be implemented for analyzing the performances of the inter-system handover between WiFi and WiMAX networks. The presence of an entity of handover is significant so that the mobile terminal supports both technologies enabling it to make heterogeneous transfers. In this paper, we propose the development of a software platform able to manage the interoperability between WiMAX and WiFi with uninterrupted communication.

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Published by: ijcsis on Jul 07, 2011
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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 6, 2011
Performances Evaluation of Inter-System Handoverbetween IEEE802.16e and IEEE802.11 Networks
 
Abderrezak Djemai
1
, Mourad Hadjila
2
, Mohammed Feham
3
STIC laboratory, University of Tlemcen, Algeria
1
2
3
 Abstract
— This article presents the mechanisms to beimplemented for analyzing the performances of the inter-systemhandover between WiFi and WiMAX networks. The presence of an entity of handover is significant so that the mobile terminalsupports both technologies enabling it to make heterogeneoustransfers. In this paper, we propose the development of asoftware platform able to manage the interoperability betweenWiMAX and WiFi with uninterrupted communication.
 Keywords- Networks, Wireless, WiFi, WiMAX, Handover, Packets.
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
 The wireless data networks knew a true explosion since theend of the Nineties to make connection to Internet. Wirelessenvironment presents many differences with the world of thewired networks in particular at the level of the low layers incommunications which are the physical and data links layers.The routing of the data towards and since wireless mobileequipment is a crucial problem especially between twodifferent networks. Times of interruption of thecommunications can make these last unusable or not easilyunderstanding (i.e. such as for example in the case of avideoconference). Thus, this operation consists in defining newprotocols and network mechanisms for a minimization or asuppression of times of interruption.The last decade was marked by the emergence of manywireless technologies such as Bluetooth 802.15 or the WiFi(Wireless Fidelity) 802.11.The most recent technology which makes today greatdevelopment in the field of the wireless transmission isWiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access)[1]. Appeared in June 2001, WiMAX is now the network of access to large band more requested thanks to its newperformances of the data rate and the range.The remainder of this paper is organized as follows: sectionI presents a brief description of WiFi and WiMAXtechnologies. Section II is devoted to the concepts of handoverWiFi-WiMAX and handover WiMAX-WiFi. Section III isreserved for the results of simulation and finally we concludethis paper.II.
 
W
I
F
I AND
W
I
MAX
TECHNOLOGIES
D
ESCRIPTION
 
 A.
 
WiFi Overview
WiFi is a high rate wireless transmission used to connectlaptops or any type of peripheral in a range of several tens of meters in indoor applications to several hundreds of meters inopen space.WiFi networks present a multitude of functionalities whichcome from fixed and mobile communications world. Thesefunctionalities allow them to be more reliable, providing theseveral services to the users.The principal functionalities of a WiFi network are:
 
The fragmentation and the re-assembly whichallow avoiding the problem of transmission of important volumes of data thus decreasing theerror rate.
 
The mobility management.
 
Variation of the transmission rate according to theradio environment.
 
The insurance of a good quality of service.Figure 1 illustrates the WiFi network topology.
Figure 1. network topology
 
WiFi
 B.
 
WiMAX Overview
WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for MicrowaveAccess) is a hertzian solution for WMAN networks. It is basedon the standard IEEE 802.16, validated in 2001 by theinternational agency of IEEE standardization.The initial version of the standard works in the band (10-66) GHz and requires a line of sight (LOS) between thetransmitter and the receiver. However, the extension 802.16a,works in the band (2-11) GHz, adapted better to the
18http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 6, 2011
regulations, and allows a transmission in no line of sight(NLOS) space.WiMAX would be an alternative to wired broadbandtechnologies. It would reinforce the connection in terms of capacity, rate and coverage. Its transmission capacities aretheoretically of 70 Mbps for a range of 50 km. In practice, itallows a transmission rate of 10 Mbps for a range of 20 Km.Figure 2 shows the WiMAX network architecture.
Figure 2. network architecture
 
WiFi
C.
 
Comparaison between WiMAX and WiFi
The table I recapitulates the difference between WiFi andWiMAX technologies.
TABLE I. T
ECHNICAL
S
PECIFITIES OF
W
I
F
I AND
W
I
MAX
 
T
ECHNOLOGIES
 
ParameterWifi 802.11WiMAX 802.16Difference
RangeAbout 300metersmaximum Up to 45 Km-cells of 5 to 10KmThe physical layer of 802.16 toleratestimeouts (reflections)through theimplementation of 256FFT (Fast FourierTransform) as against 64for 802.11 CoverageOptimized forshort rangeinsideLong-rangeoptimized foroutdoor use802.16 has betterpenetration throughobstacles to longerdistancesAdaptabilityDesigned forLANs, is for adozen users,band sizes of fixedfrequencies(20 MHz)Designed tosupport up to 100users, sizes of bands varyingfrom 15 to 20MHz802.11 MAC protocoluses a CSMA/CA while802.16 uses TDMA.802.16 can use all theavailable frequencieswhereas 802.11 islimitedBit rate2.7 bps/Hz orup to 54 Mbpsin 20 MHz5 bps/Hz or up to100 Mbps in 20MHzHigher frequencycoupled with errorcorrection providingbetter use of spectrumQuality of Service(QoS)quality of servicesupport(802.11e)Integrated inMAC at differentslayers802.11 avoids collisionsof messages viaCSMA/CA.802.16: same frequencybut spread overtime(TDMA)
III.
 
HANDOVERThe handover [2] is the mechanism which ensures thecontinuity of the connection of one MSS (Mobile SubscriberStation) during its dismrage area of a BaseStatt Base Station Switching).wo others theyar
 A.
 
e Hard Handover, the MSS communicates withseveral BS at the same time. The link with the old BS isclishment of the new one. Thehanplaceent of the coveion (BS) to another.The standard 802.16e supports three types of Handoverwhich are:
 
The Hard Handover,
 
The MDHO (Macro Diversity Handover),
 
The FBSS (FasThe Hard handover is obligatory, as for the te optional.
 Hard Handover 
During thcanelled before the estabdover is carried out as from the moment that the signal of the close cell is more important than that of the current BS.Figure 3 shows the Hard Handover execution.
Figure 3. Hard Handover Execution
 
 Macro Diversity Handover(MDHO) B.
 
While Mity Hted by theMSS and the BS, the whole of diversity is updated at the MSSole of diversity is theacro Diversandover [3] is supporand the BS. It should be noted that the whlist of the base stations participating to the procedure of Handover, whose field level is higher than a certain value.Moreover, this list is defined for each MSS associated withthe network. During Macro Diversity Handover, the MSS whotakes part in the procedure of Handover communicates with allthe base stations belonging to the whole of diversity. Duringthe procedure of MDHO, in the downlink direction, two basestations or more transmit data to the MSS so this createsdiversity in reception. In the uplink direction, the transmissionsfrom the MSS are received by several base stations.The following figure illustrates the architecture of MacroDiversity Handover.
19http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 6, 2011
Figure 4. o Diversity HandoverMacr
C.
 
Fast Base Station Switching (FBSS)
The principle is more or less similar to that of the MDHOin the sense that there is always the overall concept of diversity.With the difference here, that the mobile subscriber stationchooses a base station from the whole of diversity to becomeits principal base station. The principal base station is the onlybase station with which the mobile subscriber stationexchanges traffic at the same time in the uplink and downlink,by including the messages of management. It is also with thisBS that the MSS is recorded, synchronized or is made itscontrol in the downlink. However, with each transmitted frame,the MSS can change the principal base station as shown onfigure 5.
Fast Base Station Switching
 B.
 
 Media Independent Handover (MIH 
 
 IEEE 802.21)
TeneousnetE 802.21 created a basicarcanarcs defined in theprotrated on the figure 6.
Figure 6. Overall picture of design of MIH [6], [7]
C.
 
 MobilityManagement Module (MIPv6)
gement of IPv6term
Figure 5.
IV.
 
N
ECESSARY
S
IMULATION
M
ODULES
 Neighbor Discovery (ND), the module Media IndependentHandover (MIH) and the mobility management module(MIPv6) are the key elements used in the code of simulation.
 A.
 
 Neighbor Discovery (ND)
The module ND is used to provide the detection of movement of layer 3. In the network, the BS sends periodicallymessages RAs (Router Advertisement) to inform the MobileNodes (MNs) about the prefix of network. The ND agentlocated in MN receives these RAs and determines if themessage contains a new prefix and informs the director of interface. A timer is associated with the prefix. When the prefixis expired, an opinion is sent to the director of interface. Theimplementation also supports RS (Router Solicitation) to makeit possible a MN to discover a new BS after Handover.he realization of handover between heterogworks of access in a transparent way from the point of viewof the mobile user (without interruption nor deterioration)requires the taking into account of certain concepts such ascontinuity of service, quality of service, the discovery and theselection of the network [4], [5].Thus the work group IEEhitecture which defines a function MIHF “MediaIndependent Handover Function” which will help the mobilesystems to carry out a handover without service interruptionbetween heterogeneous networks such as IEEE 802.3 (wireLAN), IEEE 802.11x (wireless LAN), IEEE 802.16e (mobileWiMAX network), GPRS and UMTS (mobile network 3G).The IEEE 802.21 standard [4] is the development of hitecture that enables service continuity in a transparentmanner when the mobile terminal (MN) moves between twoheterogeneous networks in data link level.A set of functions to optimize the handover iocol stack of mobility management MME (MobilityManagement Entity) of network elements and there is acreation of a new entity called MIHF (Media IndependentHandover Function). It works on layer 3 and can communicatebetween local and remote interfaces which can be in contact viaanother MIHF.This is illust MIPv6 describes the mobility manainals. This mobility allows that an IPv6 terminal is alwaysreachable whatever its localization in the Internet and itsconnection remain active in spite of its displacement.The figure 7 contains several actors:
20http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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