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Hole Filing IFCNN Simulation by Parallel RK(5,6) Techniques

Hole Filing IFCNN Simulation by Parallel RK(5,6) Techniques

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Published by ijcsis
This paper concentrates on employing different parallel RK(5,6) techniques for hole-filing via unique characteristics of improved fuzzy cellular neural network (IFCNN) simulation to improve the performance of an
image or handwritten character recognition. Results are presented according to the range of template selected for simulation.
This paper concentrates on employing different parallel RK(5,6) techniques for hole-filing via unique characteristics of improved fuzzy cellular neural network (IFCNN) simulation to improve the performance of an
image or handwritten character recognition. Results are presented according to the range of template selected for simulation.

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Published by: ijcsis on Jul 07, 2011
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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 6, June 2011
Hole Filing IFCNN Simulation by Parallel RK(5,6)Techniques
(Hole Filing by Parallel RK(5,6)
)
Sukumar Senthilkumar*
Universiti Sains MalaysiaSchool of Mathematical Sciences11800 USM Pulau PinangMALAYSIAE-mail: ssenthilkumar1974@yahoo.co.inssenthilkumar@usm.my
Abd Rahni Mt Piah
Universiti Sains MalaysiaSchool of Mathematical Sciences11800 USM Pulau PinangMALAYSIAE-mail: arahni@cs.usm.my
 Abstract 
 — 
This paper concentrates on employing differentparallel RK(5,6) techniques for hole-filing via uniquecharacteristics of improved fuzzy cellular neural network(IFCNN) simulation to improve the performance of animage or handwritten character recognition. Results arepresented according to the range of template selected forsimulation.
 
 Keywords-
 
 Parallel 5-order 6-stage numerical integration techniques, Improved fuzzy cellular neural network, Hole filing,Simulation, Ordinary differential equations.
I.
 
I
 NTRODUCTION
Parallel computing techniques are used to carry outcomputations simultaneously, operating on the principle thatlarge problems are often can be divided into smaller ones,which can then be solved concurrently. It is a simultaneous process of multiple computing resources to solve acomputational problem easily and quickly. In real time it is practically believed by researchers that a possible way of solving many significant computationally intensive problemsin science and engineering is by employing parallel algorithmseffectively.From the literature, it is observed that most of the real time problems are solved by adapting Runge-Kutta (RK) methodswhich in turn are applied to compute numerical solutions for various problems, which are modeled in terms of initial value problems as in Alexander and Coyle [3], Evans [4], Hung [5],Shampine and Watts [6] and Shampine and Gordon [7].Shampine and Watts [6] developed mathematical codes for Runge-Kutta fourth order method to solve many numerical problems. Runge-Kutta formula of fifth order has beendeveloped by Butcher [8-10] to solve many computational problems. Evans and Sanugi [11] developed parallelintegration techniques of Runge-Kutta for step by step solutionof ordinary differential equations to obtain results.Ponalagusamy and Ponammal [12-14] developed new parallelfifth order algorithm to solve robot arm model, time varyingnetwork for first order initial value problems and newgeneralised plasticity equation for compressible powder metallurgy materials with results on stability region for testequation. Keyes et al. [15] provided a survey towardsapplications requiring memories and processing rates of large-scale parallelism, leading algorithmicist applications of  parallel numerical algorithms. Further, focused on practicalmedium-granularity parallelism, approachable throughtraditional programming languages. Gear [16] gave the potentiality behavior for parallelism in solving real time problems using ordinary differential equations. A survey of  potential for parallelism in Runge-Kutta techniques and parallel numerical techniques for initial value problems for ordinary differential equations are demonstrated by Norsettand Jackson [17] and Jackson [18]. Using fourth order explicitRunge-Kutta method, a parallel mesh chopping algorithm for aclass of initial value problem is illustrated by Katti andSrivastava [19]. Harrer et al. [20] introduced explicit Euler, predictor-corrector and fourth-order Runge-Kutta algorithmsfor simulating cellular neural networks. The RK-Butcher algorithm has been introduced by Bader [21, 22] for findingtruncation error estimates, intrinsic accuracies and earlydetection of stiffness in coupled differential equations thatarises in theoretical chemistry problems. Senthilkumar andPiah [23] implemented parallel Runge-Kutta arithmetic meanalgorithm to obtain a solution to a system of second order robot arm. In this paper a new attempt has been made toemploy parallel RK(5,6) algorithm for hole filing problemunder IFCNN environment. Oliveira [24] introduced a popular sequential RK-Gill algorithm to evaluate effectiveness factor of immobilized enzymes.
This research work is carried out by the first author under a post doctoralfellow scheme at the School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti SainsMalaysia, 11800 USM Pulau Pinang, MALAYSIA.*Corresponding Author.
57http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 6, June 2011
Computing value is easy in case of implementing VLSICNN chips, thereby making real-time operations possible.Roska [28] and Roska et al. [29] have presented the firstwidely used simulation system which allows simulation of alarge class of CNN and is especially suited for image processing applications. It also includes signal processing, pattern recognition and solving ordinary and partialdifferential equations, as in Gonzalez et al. [30]. The existingRK-Butcher fifth order method hole filing problem has beenstudied by Murugesh and Badri [32] via CNN simulationmodel. Similarly, hole filing problem has been analyzed byMurugesan and Elango [50] by means of existing RK fourthorder method under CNN simulation. Dalla Betta et al. [46]implemented CMOS implementation of an analogy programmed cellular neural network. Anguita et al. [31]discussed in detail about parameter configurations for holeextraction in cellular neural networks.Zadeh [35] and Zadeh et al. [36] introduced the concept of fuzzy sets (FSs) theory. Different notions of higher-order FSshave been proposed by different researchers. Recently, fuzzycellular neural network (CNN) model [43-45] has attracted agreat deal of interest among researchers from differentdisciplines. A locally interconnected, regularly repeated,analogue (continuous- or discrete-time) circuits with a one-or-two-or three-dimensional grid architecture called CNNsintroduced by Chua and Yang [25-26] and Chua [27]. Eachcell (neuron) in CNN is a non-linear dynamic system coupledonly to its nearest neighbors. Because of this localinterconnection property, CNNs have been consideredspecifically suitable for very-large-scale integrationimplementations. Shitong et al. [37] proposed improved fuzzycellular networks to incorporate the novel fuzzy statuscontaining the useful information beyond a white blood cellinto its state equation, resulting in enhancing the boundaryintegrity. Laiho et al. [38] proposed template design for CNNswith 1-bit weights.This paper is ordered as follows. A brief introduction onimproved fuzzy cellular non-linear network is presented insection 2.
 
Section 3 deals with the performance of hole-filler template design and simulation results. Section 4 discusses parallel RK(5,6) numerical integration techniques. Finally,concluding remarks is presented in section 5.II.
 
A
 
B
RIEF
O
VERVIEW O
F
 
IFCNNThe capability of the conventional cellular neural network to solve different kinds of image processing problems and thecapability of fuzzy logic to cope with uncertainty in imagesare the inherent features of FCNN [37]. Moreover, it also hasinbuilt connections with mathematical morphology. Theunique characteristic of IFCNN is incorporating novel fuzzystatus with feed-forward and feedback templates in FCNNsuch that the useful information beyond the region can besufficiently utilized. FCNN is a locally connected network [37] and the output of a neuron is connected to the inputs of every neuron/cell in its
×
neighborhood, and similarly theinputs of a neuron are only connected to the outputs of everyneuron in its
×
neighborhood. It is apparent that feedback (not recurrent) connections are presented in detail. Thearchitecture of IFCNN is shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1. Architecture of IFCNN
The state equation of IFCNN is given by,
(,)(,)(,)(,)min(,)(,)max(,)(,)min(,)(,)(,)
1(,;,)(,;,)((,;,))((,;,))((,;,))
ijijklcklNij xklcklNijijfklcklNij fklcklNij fklcklNijckl
dxcxAijklydtR Bijklu IAijkly Aijkly Bijklu
= + ++ + + ++ ++ +
%%%%
max(,)min(,)(,)max(,)(,)
((,;,))((,;,))((,;,))
 fklij fklcklNij fklcklNij
 BijkluFijklxFijklx
++
%%
(1)
58http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 6, June 2011
and the input equation of C
ij
is given by,
0,
ijij
u
=
(2)1
 
i
 
 
 M 
; 1
 
 j
 
 
 N 
.the output equation of 
ij
is given by,
1()11,2
ijijijij
 yfxxx
= = +
(3)1
 
i
 
 
 M 
; 1
 
 j
 
 
 N 
.The constraints /conditions are given by
 A
fmax
(
i
,
 j
;
,
l
) =
 A
fmin
(
,
l
;
i
,
 j
);
 A
fmax
(
i
,
 j
;
,
l
) =
 A
max(
,
l
;
i
,
 j
);
fmax
(
i
,
 j
;
,
l
) =
fmin
(
,
l
;
i
,
 j
);
fmax
(
i
,
 j
;
,
l
) =
max(
,
l
;
i
,
 j
);1
 
i
 
 
 M 
; 1
 
 j
 
 
 N 
. (4)
1)0(
ij
 x
;
1
 
i
 
 
 M 
; 1
 
 j
 
 
 N 
.
1)0(
ij
u
;
1
 
i
 
 
 M 
; 1
 
 j
 
 
 N 
.
),;,(),;,(
 jil Al ji A
=
 From the above Eqs. (1) - (4),
~
,
~
,
 N 
(
i
,
 j
), and
 A
areidentical as in FCNN. Comparing (4) with FCNN, the onlyone discrepancy between the equation is the novel fuzzystatus.
~min(,)~max(,)
(((,;,))((,;,))))
klkl
 fklcNij fklcNijkl
FijklxFijklx x
+ ++ +
(5)is adhered to Eq. (1), which obviously reflects the requiredinformation where
fmin
(
i
,
 j
;
,
l
) and
fmax
(
i
,
 j
;
,
l
) indicates theconnected weights between cell
ij
 
and
kl
respectively.Hence, the complete template determines the connection between cell and its neighbors, consists of (2
× 1) and (2
×1) matrices
 A
,
 B
,
fmin
and
fmax
. The symmetric matrices areconsidered in the above template to congregate the IFCNN’ssymmetric requirements.III.
 
A
 
B
RIEF SKETCH ON HOLE
-
FILLER AND SIMULATIONRESULTS
 In a bipolar image, all the holes are filled and remainsunaltered outside the holes, in case of hole filing IFCNNsimulation [46-50]. Allow
1,1
==
 R
 x
and take +1 torepresent the black pixel and –1 for the white pixel. If the bipolar image is input with
ij
u
=
 
into IFCNN and imageshaving holes are enclosed by the black pixels, then initial statevalues are set to be
1)0(
=
ij
 x
. The output values are obtainedas
 N  j M i y
ij
=
1,1,1)0(
from equation (1).Consider the templates
 A, B
and independent current source
 I 
as
,0000
=
aabaa A
 
a
> 0,
b
> 0(6)
,000040000
=
 B
 
 I 
= -1where the template parameters
a
and
b
are to be determined. Inorder to make the outer edge cells become the inner ones,normally auxiliary cells are added along the outer boundary of the image and their state values are set to be zeros by circuitrealization resulting in zero output values. The state equation(1) can then be rewritten as
min(,)(,)max(,)(,)
((,;,))((,;,))4().
ijijfklcklNij fklijcklNij
dx xAijklydt  Aijklyut
= + + ++ +
%%
(7)For instance, here the cells
(
i
+1,
 j
),
(
i
-1,
 j
),
(
i
,
 j
+1) and
(
i
,
 j
-1) are non-diagonal cells. Designing of hole-filler template [31] and its various sub-problems are discussed usingCNN simulations [46-50]. Figures 2 and 3 show the hole filingof an image (before and after) by employing a parallelRK(5,6) type-III technique. The settling time
Ts
andcomputation time
Tc
for different step sizes are considered for the purpose of comparison. The settling time
Ts
is the time
59http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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