(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 6, June 2011
Location Estimation and Mobility Prediction Using Neuro-fuzzy Networks
In Cellular Networks
Department of Electrical EngineeringIran University of Science and TechnologyTehran, Iranmaryam.email@example.com
Department of Electrical EngineeringIran University of Science and TechnologyTehran, Iransoleimani@iust.ac.ir
In this paper an approach is proposed for locationestimation, tracking and mobility prediction in cellularnetworks in dense urban areas using neural and neuro-fuzzynetworks. In urban areas with high buildings, due to the effectsof multipath fading and Non-Line-of-Sight conditions, theaccuracy of positioning methods based on direction finding andranging degrades significantly. Also in these areas, due to highuser traffic there's a need for network resources management.Knowing the next possible position of user would be helpful inthis case. Here using fingerprint positioning concept, afterchoosing appropriate parameters for fingerprinting in GSMcellular networks, MLP and RBF neural networks were usedfor position estimation. Then by the use of neuro-fuzzynetworks a tracking and post-processing method is applied toestimated locations. For mobility prediction purpose the use of ANFIS neuro-fuzzy is implemented.
Keywords-position estimation; neuro-fuzzy; prediction;cellular networks.
Positioning in wireless networks is estimating a node'sdistance with reference to a fixed node or locating it by itsgeographical coordinates. Positioning is based on parametersused by mobile or fixed nodes for communication such asReceived Signal Strength (RSS), Time of Arrival (TOA) andAngle of Arrival (AOA). According to the type of wirelessnetwork and transmission protocols, different parameters areused for communication.Among several types of wireless networks, cellular phonenetworks due to increasing usage of cell phones for communications are more distributed with more subscribersso it can be said that one of the most probable items found ineveryone's pocket is his cell phone. Having locationinformation in cellular phone networks, various services can be provided based on user's location ranging fromcommercial and advertising services to routing, navigationand emergency calls. In cellular phone networks theseservices are referred to as Location Based Services (LBS).Also by locating a user's exact position network's resourcescan be efficiently managed and allocated leading to proper handover between cells and reduced co-channel interference.However for managing networks resources consumptionand reducing the costs of location update and call delivery procedures, prediction of user's next probable location can behelpful. This is done by analyzing some patterns of hismobility behavior. Therefore searching for users will be donein smaller groups of cells avoiding expensive queries toHome Location Register (HLR). This is also useful in other wireless networks such as Ad-Hoc networks for efficient bandwidth allocation and uninterrupted hand over betweenaccess points. Next sections are as follows: section II describes the problem of positioning in dense urban areas and relatedstudies in the literature. In section III proposed approach of this paper for positioning and mobility prediction isexplained and contains 3 subsections: fingerprint based positioning in subsection
, post processing of estimated path in subsection
and path prediction in subsection
arediscussed. Section IV includes the results of evaluating the proposed approach on database collected from GSM mobile phone network in city of Tehran. Results were discussed insection V and last section concludes the paper.II.
With developments in cellular phone networks differentmethods were considered for facilitating user positioning,such as Cell-ID, Cell-ID+TA, A-GPS, AOA, … the moreaccuracy increases the more expensive the deploymentwould be and the need for hardware and software changes in both cell phone device and network infrastructure rises.Moreover most of these methods are sensitive to Non Lin of Sight (NLOS) communication between transmitter andreceiver and multipath fading, conditions that dense urbanareas are involved with. Although everyday there are moreand more mobile phone devices equipped with GPS receiverswith positioning accuracy up to few meters, but in urbanareas with high buildings where it's less likely to have line of sight communication with at least 3 GPS satellites, or inside buildings where the signals attenuate significantly passingthrough the walls, positioning accuracy degradesconsiderably. In such cases there's a need for an auxiliarymethod to overcome these problems.