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A Hierarchical Overlay Design for Peer to Peer and SIP Integration

A Hierarchical Overlay Design for Peer to Peer and SIP Integration

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Published by ijcsis
Peer-to-Peer Session Initiation Protocol (P2PSIP) is the upcoming migration from the traditional client-server based SIP system. Traditional centralized server based SIP system is vulnerable to several problems like performance bottleneck, single point of failure. So, integration of Peer-to-Peer system (P2P) with Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) will improve the performance of a conventional SIP system because a P2P system is highly scalable, robust, and fault tolerant due to its decentralized manner and self-organization of the network. However, P2PSIP
architecture faces several challenges including trustworthiness of peers, resource lookup delay, Network Address Translation (NAT) traversal, etc. This paper focuses on understanding the needs of integration of P2P and SIP. It also reviews the existing approaches to identify their advantages and shortcomings. Based on the existing approaches, it proposes a layered architecture to address the major challenges introduced by P2PSIP.
Peer-to-Peer Session Initiation Protocol (P2PSIP) is the upcoming migration from the traditional client-server based SIP system. Traditional centralized server based SIP system is vulnerable to several problems like performance bottleneck, single point of failure. So, integration of Peer-to-Peer system (P2P) with Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) will improve the performance of a conventional SIP system because a P2P system is highly scalable, robust, and fault tolerant due to its decentralized manner and self-organization of the network. However, P2PSIP
architecture faces several challenges including trustworthiness of peers, resource lookup delay, Network Address Translation (NAT) traversal, etc. This paper focuses on understanding the needs of integration of P2P and SIP. It also reviews the existing approaches to identify their advantages and shortcomings. Based on the existing approaches, it proposes a layered architecture to address the major challenges introduced by P2PSIP.

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A Hierarchical Overlay Design for Peer to Peer andSIP Integration
Md. Safiqul Islam
#1
, Syed Ashiqur Rahman
#2
, Rezwan Ahmed
3
, Mahmudul Hasan
#4
#
Computer Science and Engineering Department, Daffodil International University Dhaka, Bangladesh
1
safiqul@daffodilvarsity.edu.bd
2
ashiq797@daffodilvarsity.edu.bd
4
mhraju@daffodilvarsity.edu.bd
 American International University - Bangladesh Dhaka, Bangldesh
3
a.rezwan@aiub.edu
 Abstract
—Peer-to-Peer Session Initiation Protocol (P2PSIP) isthe upcoming migration from the traditional client-server basedSIP system. Traditional centralized server based SIP systemis vulnerable to several problems like performance bottleneck,single point of failure. So, integration of Peer-to-Peer system(P2P) with Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) will improve the per-formance of a conventional SIP system because a P2P system ishighly scalable, robust, and fault tolerant due to its decentralizedmanner and self-organization of the network. However, P2PSIParchitecture faces several challenges including trustworthinessof peers, resource lookup delay, Network Address Translation(NAT) traversal, etc. This paper focuses on understanding theneeds of integration of P2P and SIP. It also reviews the existingapproaches to identify their advantages and shortcomings. Basedon the existing approaches, it proposes a layered architecture toaddress the major challenges introduced by P2PSIP.
I. I
NTRODUCTION
The session initiation protocol (SIP) is a signaling protocol[1] standardized by IETF. It is also the default standardprotocol for VoIP. The majority of the VoIP developmentis currently based on SIP. SIP is used to establish, modify,or tear down a multimedia session. Most VoIP systemsrely on fixed set of SIP servers for which they suffer fromperformance bottlenecks, single point of failure, and Denialof Service (DoS) attacks. On the other hand, a Peer-to-Peer(P2P) system [2] is a popular technology which does not relyon central control and is very popular for resource sharing.As in a P2P system there is no centralized server, such asystem has greater robustness, scalability and fault tolerance.If SIP can be made to work over P2P systems, it will improvethe performance of traditional SIP systems and eliminatethe problems of using centralized SIP servers. Integrationof P2P technologies and SIP introduces several challengessuch as resource lookup delays, node heterogeneity, NATtraversal, peers trustworthiness which has to be addressedbefore enjoying its advantages.This paper describes the need to integrate P2P and SIPtechnologies and examines cost benefit of P2PSIP over thetraditional fixed set of SIP servers. Further it discusses howP2P can be integrated with a traditional SIP system. We alsoexamine some existing approaches to identify in achievingP2PSIP. The remainder of the paper is organized as follows.Section II gives an overview of traditional SIP systems andterminologies involved. P2P technology is demonstrated insection III. P2PSIP is introduced in section IV and section V.In Section VI, details out the current approaches for P2PSIP.In Section VII, a proposal for the integration of P2PSIP isintroduced based on the existing approaches. Finally, SectionVIII takes an account of the conclusion.II. S
ESSION
I
NITIATION
P
ROTCOL
(SIP)SIP is an application-layer control protocol for initiating,terminating and modifying multimedia sessions (for examplevideo, voice, instant messaging, online games and multimediaconferences). To establish a session, a traditional PSTNrequires SS7 [3] signaling. In IP based telephony, thesignaling protocol is SIP. However, Session DescriptionProtocol (SDP) [4] and Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP)[5] should be used together with SIP to provide completeIP telephony system. Traditional SIP architecture usesclient-server architecture. SIP servers are classified intoproxy, registrar, and redirect servers [1]. A proxy server is anintermediate entity that can act as a server to accept a SIPrequest or act as a client to forward a SIP request. Redirectservers performs redirection of SIP request. A registrar serveraccepts Register request from clients and maintains locationinformation in order to support mobility. SIP user agents areclassified into user agent client (UAC) and user agent server(UAS). A user agent client [1] is a SIP entity that createsa new request. It uses client state machinery to send thatrequest. A user agent server is also a SIP entity that receivesSIP requests on behalf of users and responds to these requests.Each user agent is identified by SIP uniform resourceidentifier (URI) for instance sip:username@somedomain.com.In order to initiate a session with another user, the caller firstneeds to know the SIP URI of that user. A caller can eithersend an INVITE request to a locally configured SIP server
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 6, June 201194http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
or directly send an INVITE to the IP address and port of the user’s address. A user agent registers its location with theregistrar server before initiating a session.III. P
EER
-
TO
-P
EER
(P2P)Peer-to-peer(P2P) technology, by definition, is a mesh net-work as opposed to a star network in a client/server model. Ina peer-to-peer network, all nodes act simultaneously as clientand server. Some of the advantages of P2P systems are:
Scalability
Robustness
No single point of failureThere are two types of P2P systems [6], structured andunstructured. The structured networks impose techniques totightly control the data placement and topology within thenetwork, and currently only support search by identifier.On the other hand unstructured networks rely on floodingtechniques. In many scenarios, the increased search efficiencymakes structured networks preferable to the widely deployedunstructured networks. Most widely used structured P2Psystem is Distributed Hash Table (DHT). There are severalflavors of DHT each with some advantages over another. Itis very important to choose a proper DHT algorithm to havegood performance of SIP running on P2P.DHT is a decentralized and distributed system where allthe peer nodes and resources are identified by unique keys.A DHT table is introduced to provide efficient location andretrieving operations. The most popular DHT algorithms areChord [7], Bamboo [8], Pastry [10], and Tapestry [11].Most of the P2PSIP architectures use the Chord algorithmto maintain the P2P overlay. The logical structure of Chord is a ring shaped where each node is identified by anumeric identity. For each peer, the peer with the nearestlower identifier is called the predecessor and nearest higheridentifier is known as successor. Figure 1 illustrates a Chordring where node 23 is responsible for objects O6 to O22.Each node maintains a finger table that contains informationof half of the nodes clockwise from that node. Each node isresponsible for objects whose associated key is in betweenthe node’s own id and predecessor’s ID.Like Chord, Pastry is another 2nd generation large P2Prouting network [10]. Pastry forms a self-organized, robustand overlay network in the internet. The major challenge isagain to form an efficient algorithm for routing. In Pastrynetwork, each peer or node has a unique numeric 128-bitidentifier which is assigned randomly when a peer joins inthe network . Each peer formed the overlay network on thetop of the hash table and the peer contains the table of listof leaf nodes, a routing table and a neighborhood list. Leaf nodes, a routing and a neighborhood list tables organizedbased on the existing nodes of the network and here we cansee the self-organization is very similar to Chord algorithmexcept that Pastry also update its routing table. Leaf nodesset contains L/2 closest nodes where as routing table containsthe prefix based identifier where each node shares a prefixwith the data key .There is also a unique identifier for eachkey. The algorithm choose the node with the closest numericvalue of a key to route messages. During routing, the sendernode sends the message to the node whose identifier’s prefixis minimum one digit larger than the sender node. If thereis no existence of such a node it forwards the messagesto the another node with the same prefix whose identifieris numerically closer to the data key.The expected numberof routing step is O(logN). The Pastry method providesmore flexible mechanism than the chord method because thesuccessor with the pastry identifiers is not so strictly definedand its adjusting nodes in its routing table.The Bamboo DHT algorithm conceptualize the namespaceas a circle like Chord DHT which means the peer alwayslocated next to the peer with the largest possible Peer-ID[9]. Unlike Chord but like Pastry, bamboo uses prefix routingto accumulate on the peer responsible for the search key. Ituses the Pastry geometry where the term geometry is used torefer the neighbor management algorithm or independent of the routing algorithms used as well as patterns of neighborlinks in DHT. The Bamboo algorithms are more incrementalthan Pastry. In bandwidth-limited environments, the bambooalgorithm allows to continuous churn in membership as well asit allows to better acceptance of changes in large membershipin DHT.
N4N23N35
Predecessor Successor 
Fig. 1. Chord Ring
A node will search for a target node by searching thenode in the finger table which is nearest to the targetnode. Since each node knows about nearby nodes, so aftera repeated number of searches, the target node will bediscovered. Choosing the proper DHT algorithm will improvethe performance of P2PSIP. Table 1 shows a comparisonof different DHT algorithms [12]; from this list a suitablealgorithm for a P2PSIP implementation could be chosen.Below is a table comparing the various features of differentflavors of DHT algorithms: Comparison among different DHTalgorithms, adapted from [12] is shown in Table I.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 6, June 201195http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
TABLE IC
OMPARISON OF DIFFERENT
DHT
ALGORITHM
,
ADAPTED FROM
[12]
Chord CAN Pastry Bamboo Tapestry
Kademlia
LookupMethods
RecursiveSemi-RecursiveIterativeRecursiveSemi-RecursiveIterativeRecursiveSemi-RecursiveIterativeRecursiveSemi-RecursiveIterativeRecursiveSemi-RecursiveIterativeIterative
ParallelLookups
NotSuitableNo NotsuitableYes (on It-erative)No Yes
Complexity
Simple Simple Quite com-plexQuite com-plexNotcomplexSimple
BandwidthConsump-tion
Moderate Moderate High Moderate Quite high Moderate
NodeJoin andDeparture
Quite sim-pleVerysimpleComplex joinQuite sim-pleComplex joinSimple
IV. P
EER
-
TO
-P
EER
S
ESSION
I
NITIATION
P
ROTOCOL
(P2PSIP)P2PSIP is the combination of a P2P network and SIP, wheretraditional fixed set of servers are replaced by a distributedmechanism. DHT can be used which is one of the possibledistributed mechanisms available. All the address of recordto contact URI mappings is distributed among the peersin the P2P overlay. Currently, the P2PSIP working groupof the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has definedthe terminologies, concepts in [13] and use cases in [14].Moreover, this working group is trying to standardize theP2PSIP peer protocol. P2PSIP can be implemented into twoways: one is SIP on top of P2P and the other implementsP2P over SIP. SIP on top of P2P uses P2P protocol toimplement SIP location service; while the other approachuses SIP messages to transport P2P traffic. Traditional a P2Pnode searching mechanism uses flooding mechanism to locatethe node. However, to find a target node using P2PSIP formultimedia session, flooding mechanism should be avoided.V. P
INPOINTING
C
HALLENGES FOR
P2PSIPIn the following section, we will discuss some commonrequirements to implement P2PSIP. In an IETF draft, Bryan,et al. defines a set of requirements for P2PSIP [15]. We havetaken some important point from this paper.First, P2PSIP peers should be capable of performing opera-tions such as joining, leaving, storing information on behalf of the overlay, or transporting messages. Secondly, the peersmust provide the functions offered by traditional SIP network.For example, P2PSIP should support the modification, estab-lishment, and termination of multimedia sessions. Thirdly, theimplementation should not prevent the use of existing proto-cols like SSL or TLS as used in the P2P or SIP network. NATand firewall traversal should also be supported for P2PSIP.Finally, the functionality of the fixed set of centralized SIPservers should be distributed over the peers. Some of the otherchallenges are described in the following sections.
 A. Resource Lookup Delay
Locating a peer or resources in P2PSIP networks takes muchmore time than the traditional SIP based network. Trying toreduce this delay is significant challenge for P2PSIP.
 B. Network Address Table (NAT) Traversal
Most of the P2P nodes may be behind a NAT or Firewall.There must be some relay in between them with a publicIP address in order to establish communication with otherpeer. This is one of the most important challenges for P2PSIPnetwork.
C. Node Heterogeneity
In order to maintain the scalability and service availability of P2PSIP, node heterogeneity should be handled appropriately.Node heterogeneity can be difference in bandwidth, CPU,storage, and uptime of the peer. Security Issues and Trustwor-thiness of peers Security of a distributed P2P communicationsystem is another of the major challenges. Security issuesconcern user identification, authentication and trustworthiness.
 D. Security Issues and Trustworthiness of Peers
Security of a distributed P2P communication system isanother of the major challenges. Security issues concern useridentification, authentication and trustworthiness.VI. E
XISTING
A
PPROACHES
Integration of P2P and SIP will improve the performanceof traditional SIP system as P2P has several advantages.There are several requirements that should be met to integrateP2P and SIP. Those requirements have already been describedin Section V.Singh and Schulzrinne propose a hybrid architecture forthe integration of P2P and SIP that introduces two additionaladvantages: interoperability with existing SIP servers andno maintenance cost besides P2P scalability and reliability[16]. Chord was used as an underlying DHT algorithm.Their architecture is based on the concept of Super nodes
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 6, June 201196http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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