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Abrupt Change Detection of Fault in Power System Using Independent Component Analysis

Abrupt Change Detection of Fault in Power System Using Independent Component Analysis

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Published by ijcsis
This paper proposes a novel approach for fault detection in a power system based on Independent Component Analysis (ICA). The index for detection of fault is derived from independent components of faulty current samples. The proposed approach is tested on simulated data obtained from MATLAB/Simulink for a typical power system. The proposed approach is compared with existing approaches available in literature for fault detection in time-series data. The comparison demonstrates the accuracy and consistency of the proposed approach in considered changing conditions of a typical power system. By virtue of its accuracy and consistency, the proposed approach can be used in real time applications also.
This paper proposes a novel approach for fault detection in a power system based on Independent Component Analysis (ICA). The index for detection of fault is derived from independent components of faulty current samples. The proposed approach is tested on simulated data obtained from MATLAB/Simulink for a typical power system. The proposed approach is compared with existing approaches available in literature for fault detection in time-series data. The comparison demonstrates the accuracy and consistency of the proposed approach in considered changing conditions of a typical power system. By virtue of its accuracy and consistency, the proposed approach can be used in real time applications also.

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Abrupt Change Detection of Fault in Power SystemUsing Independent Component Analysis
 
1
SATYABRATA DAS,
2
SOUMYA RANJAN MOHANTY
3
SABYASACHI PATTNAIK 
1
Asstt Prof., Department of CSE, College of Engineering Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India-751024
 2
Asstt Prof., Department of EE, Motilal Neheru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad, India-211004
3
Prof., Department of I&CT, Fakir Mohan University, Balasore, India -756019E-mail:satya.das73@gmail.com,soumya@mnnit.ac.in, spattnaik40@yahoo.co.in, 
 Abstract 
 — This paper proposes a novel approach for faultdetection in a power system based on Independent ComponentAnalysis (ICA). The index for detection of fault is derived fromindependent components of faulty current samples. The proposedapproach is tested on simulated data obtained fromMATLAB/Simulink for a typical power system. The proposedapproach is compared with existing approaches available inliterature for fault detection in time-series data. The comparisondemonstrates the accuracy and consistency of the proposedapproach in considered changing conditions of a typical powersystem. By virtue of its accuracy and consistency, the proposedapproach can be used in real time applications also.
 Index Terms
 — 
 
Digital relaying, distance relay, fault detection,independent component analysis.
I.
 
I
 NTRODUCTION
 Every power system is provided with a protective relaywhich ensures better performance while maintaining minimumdisturbance and damage. In last few years, digital relays havereplaced their solid-state-device counterparts due to their fast,accurate and reliable operation. The fault diagnosis unit of digital relays contains a fault detector (FD) unit in addition tofault classification and fault localization unit[1]-[2].In recent years, a number of methods is available in theliterature for detection of power system faults. Fault can bedetected based on the comparison of difference between thevalue in current samples for two consecutive cycles beinggreater than threshold value and phasor comparison scheme[3]–[4]. However it has the limitation due to the difficulties inmodeling the fault resistance. A Kalman filter–based approach[5]-[7] has been proposed in order to detect power systemfaults. Wavelet based approach [8] is used to detect the abruptchange in the signal. The synchronized segmentation isapplied for disturbance recognition [9]. Then, application of adaptive whitening filter and wavelet transform has been usedto detect the abrupt change in the signal [10]. However, thesemethods are sensitive to frequency deviation, presence of noise and harmonics.In this paper, algorithm for an abrupt change detection is proposed where the index for detection is derived fromindependent component of current samples. The proposedmethod performance have been tested under the presence of noise, harmonics and with frequency variation and found to be accurate. Independent component analysis (ICA) is selectedfor feature extraction because of its reliability to extract therelevant and useful features. Further, the proposed approach iscompared with three existing approaches available inliteratures. The first one of these is a detector based oncomparison of sample value with one cycle. The second one being a differential approach based on phasor estimation [3]while third is a moving-sum based detector where sum over one cycle of faulty current samples is chosen as index for detection [11].Rest of the paper is arranged as follows; section II gives a brief description of three approaches used for comparativeassessment of proposed approach followed by section III,which gives a brief description of independent componentanalysis technique. Next, section IV presents the discussion onthe proposed approach based on independent componentanalysis while section V present the testing of the proposedapproach. Finally, conclusions are given in section VI.II.
 
F
AULT DETECTION
T
ECHNIQUES USED FOR POWER SYSTEMBASED ON TIME
-
SERIES DATA
This section gives brief description of fault detectiontechniques used for power system based on time-series data.These three techniques are used to carry out the comparativeassessment of proposed approach in changing conditions of the system. All these approaches are based on deterministicmodeling of faulty current signal obtained from a typical power system.
 A.
 
Sample Comparison (SC)
The first approach for fault detection is the conventional.Here, decision is taken out by computing the difference of current sample of signal with corresponding sample of the onecycle earlier. Under normal conditions, the computeddifference comes out to be zero. When there is a fault in thesystem, the current signal gets distorted and consequentlycomputed difference become significant. If the computed
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 6, June 2011112http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 difference remains greater than a threshold value for threeconsecutive samples, a fault is reported by the FD unit. Letthe discrete current signal be
m
i(k)Isin(k)
 
 (1) Where,
m
 I 
is the peak of the signal,
 
is the discrete angular frequency and
 
is the phase angle. Then the index is derivedas follows:
change
i(k)i(k)i(kN)
(2)
 scchange
 Index(k)|i(k)|
 (3) Where,
is the time-instant and
 N 
is the window size of one period. If 
 scscthreshol
 Index(k)(Index)
, (4)a fault is reported by FD unit
 B.
 
 Phasor Comparison (PC)
This approach for fault detection is based on estimation of the phasor [3]. It is a relatively fast algorithm based on thederivative of the current signal. If the discrete current signal is,
m
i(k)Isin(k)
 
(5)Where,
m
 I 
is the peak of the signal,
 
is the discreteangular frequency and
 
is the phase angle. Then at anyinstant,
, the peak-value of the signal can be estimated as,
2222
"())'()ˆ()
m
ki I
(6)Where
^
()
m
 I
is the peak estimate of the signal, and
'
()
i
and
''
()
i
 are the first and second derivatives of discrete currentsignal respectively. The peak estimate is the magnitude of fundamental phasor at k-th estimate. The magnitude of thecurrent phasor obtained at
k-th
instant is compared with that at(
-3)-th instant. If the difference is more than the thresholdvalue for three successive samples, a fault is reported by FD.The derivation of index is as follows:
ˆˆ()()(3)
changemm
 IkIkI
(7)
 pcchange
 Index(k)|I(k)|
, (8)If 
cpcthreshol
 Index(k)(Index)
 (9) then FD detects the fault. As the method is derivative based, itis found to be sensitive to noise and signal distortions.
C.
 
One-Cycle-Moving-Sum (OCMS):
This approach involves the computation of one cycle sumof current samples obtained from the power system [11]. Thisapproach is based on the symmetrical nature of the currentwaveforms in power system. In absence of fault, the computedsum comes out to be zero. However, on occurrence of fault inthe power system, the corresponding sum will be non-zero or equivalently greater than a chosen threshold. For on-lineimplementation, once a new sample is obtained, the oldestsample is discarded and the sum is recalculated for the newwindow. Thus, only one addition and one subtraction isrequired at each step of computation. For large variation insystem conditions such as frequency variations, the windowsize needs to be made adaptive to generate the zero sums innormal condition. However, such variations are not commonin large power system. Let the discrete current signal be
m
i(k)Isin(k)
 
 (10) Then, the derivation of index is as follows:
1
i()i
 sumlk
(11)Where,
 N 
is the window size for one cycle.
ocmssum
 Index(k)|i|
 (12) 
 If 
 
ocmsocmsthreshol
 Index(k)(Index)
 (13) A fault is reported by FD unit. Also,1
 sumsum
i(k)i(k)i(k)i(kN)
(14)The above eqn. (14) shows that, for on-line computation, onlyone addition and one subtraction is required at each step.III.
 
I
 NDEPENDENT
C
OMPONENT
A
 NALYSIS
 Since ICA is based on the statistical properties of signals, itworks accurately in non-deterministic modeling of the signals[12]. For ICA to be applied, following assumptions for themixing and demixing models needs to be satisfied:1. The source signals
 s
(
i
) is statistically independent.2. At most one of the source signals is Gaussian distributed.3. The number of observations
is greater or equal to thenumber of sources
 N 
(
 N 
).In addition to blind separation of sources, ICA is also used for representing data as linear combination of latent variables.There are different approaches for estimating the ICA modelwhich are based on the statistical properties of signals. Someof the methods used for ICA estimation are:1. by maximization of nongaussianity2. by minimization of mutual information3. by maximum likelihood estimation,4. by tensorial methodsBlind source separation algorithm estimates the source signalsfrom observed mixtures. The word ‘blind’ emphasizes that thesource signals and the way the sources are mixed, i.e. themixing model parameters, are unknown or known veryimprecisely. Independent component analysis is a blind sourceseparation (BSS) algorithm, which transforms the observedsignals into mutually statistically independent signals. TheICA algorithm has many technical applications includingsignal processing, brain imaging, telecommunications andaudio signal separation [12] – [14].
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 6, June 2011113http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 
 A.
 
 ICA estimation by maximization of nongaussianity:
A measure of nongaussianity is negentropy
 J(y)
which is thenormalized differential entropy. By maximizing thenegentropy, the mutual information of the sources isminimized. Also, mutual information is a measure of theindependence of random variables. Negentropy is always non-negative and zero for Gaussian variables. [12]
)()()
 gauss
 JyHyHy
(15)The differential entropy
 H 
of a random vector 
 y
with density
 p
y
(η) is defined as
()log
 yy
 Hypp
 
 
 
(16)In equation (15) and (16), the estimation of negentropyrequires the estimation of probability functions of sourcesignals which are unknown. Instead, the followingapproximation of negentropy is used:
2
Tiiigauss
 JyJEwxEGwxEGy
(17)Here,
 E 
denotes the statistical expectation and G is chosen asnon-quadratic. Assuming that we observe
n
linear mixtures
 x
1
 
,...,
 x
n
 
of 
n
independent components :
1122
....
 jnn
 xasasas
For all
 j
(18)We assume that each mixture
 x
j
 
as well as each independentcomponent
 s
 
is a random variable, instead of a timedependent signal. Without loss of generality, we can assumethat both the mixture variables and the independentcomponents have zero mean. If this is not true, then theobservable variables
 x
 j
can always be centered by subtractingthe sample mean, which makes the model zero mean. It isconvenient to use vector-matrix notation instead of the sumslike in the previous equation. Let us denote by
x,
the randomvector whose elements are the mixtures
 x
1
 
,...,
 x
n
and likewise by
s
the random vector with elements
 s
1
 
,...,
 s
n
. Let us denote by
A
the matrix with elements
a
ij
. All vectors are taken ascolumn vectors; thus
 x
 
, or the transpose of 
x
, is a row vector.With this vector-matrix notation, the above mixing model becomes:
 xAs
(19)denoting the column of matrix
A
by
a
j
 
the model can also bewritten as
1
niii
 xas
(20)The statistical model in eqn (20) is called independentcomponent analysis, or ICA model. The ICA model is agenerative model and the independent components are latentvariables, meaning that they cannot be directly observed. Alsothe mixing matrix is assumed to be unknown. All we observeis the random vector 
x
, and we must estimate both
 A
 
and
 s
 
using it. The starting point for ICA is the very simpleassumption that the components
 s
i
 
are statisticallyindependent. We also assume that the independentcomponents have non-Gaussian
 
distributions. Then, after estimating the matrix
A
, we can compute its inverse, say
W
,and obtain the independent component simply by:
 sWx
(21)Fast ICA is an efficient algorithm based on fixed-pointiteration used for estimation of ICs in time series data [15].This approach for ICs estimation is 10-100 times faster thanthe other methods that are used to reduce data dimension.IV.
 
P
ROPOSED
F
AULT
D
ETECTION
M
ETHOD
 This section presents the algorithm of the proposed methodfor detection of abrupt changes due to occurrence of fault inthe power system. An abrupt change detector based onindependent components of current samples is proposed in thissection. The index for detection is derived from independentcomponents of current sample obtained from data acquisitionsystem. The proposed algorithm has been tested on simulationdata and is explained below:(i) Data has been obtained from MATLAB/Simulink modelof the interconnected power system considered in this work.Also in this study, the pre-fault signal can be taken as non-faulty signal. The signal is first passed through the detection block followed by classification block and finally throughlocalization block for deciding logic for trip signal system.This constitutes fault diagnosis system.(ii) The simulated signal is
 
 passed through first block wherethe removal of mean and de-correlation (for removal of secondorder dependencies) is done. This constitutes the first level of  pre-processing. The output of this block is fed to the next block.(iii) In this block, whitening of data followed by dimensionreduction
 
is performed for reducing redundancy in data.Output of this block is fed to third block.
 
(iv) Now, principal components (PC) of data
 
are determinedand fed to next block.
 
(v) Here, independent components of data are calculatedusing fixed point iteration of Fast ICA algorithm [12], [15].(vi) The ICA block returns demixing or separating matrix,
 f 
along with independent component,
 f 
 s
of real time signal.For calculation of these variables matrix,
 f 
 x
is constructedfrom real time signal samples.
(vii)
The stored signals or the pre-fault signals are used toconstruct matrix,
n
for the derivation of index.The index is derived as
2
()(((()*()())))
 proposedfn
 IndexknormalisedabsWkxks
(21)The fault is detected when
()
 proposed 
 Index
is greater than acertain threshold
()
threshold 
 proposed 
 Index
. The threshold,
()
threshold 
 proposed 
 Index
is evaluated by decision block andappropriate actions are taken. This information is then passed
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 6, June 2011114http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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