(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 6, June 2011
II.
F
UZZY
R
ULE BASED
S
YSTEMS
Fuzzy logic is a mathematical approach to emulate thehuman way of thinking and learning [30]. This logic is anextension of classical set theory which says a fuzzy set is aclass of objects with a continuum of grades of membership. Such a set is characterized by a membershipmapping the elements of a domain, space or universe of
discourse ‗U‘ to the interval {0, 1}. If ‗U‘ is a collectionof objects denoted by x, then a fuzzy set ‗A‘ in theuniverse of discourse ‗U‘ can be defined as a set of
ordered pairs as shown in equation (1) [5], [8]:
A x x A x A
ii
)(,
(1)Here x refers to i
th
element of the set and µ
A
(x
i
) is themembership grade of x
i
i
n set ‗A‘.
Fuzzy Logic Based Systems or Fuzzy Rule BasedSystems (FRBS) are intelligent systems
those are based onmapping of input spaces to output spaces where the way of representing this mapping is known as fuzzy linguistic rules.These intelligent systems provide a framework for representingand processing information in a way that resembles humancommunication and reasoning process.
Figure 1. Fuzzy Logic System
Each fuzzy rule based system, typically possesses afuzzy inference system (shown in Figure 1) composed of four major modules: Fuzzification module, InferenceEngine, Knowledge Base and Defuzzification module[31]. The fuzzification module performs thetransformation of crisp inputs into fuzzy domain values. Itis mainly done to find the belongingness of data sets todifferent membership functions. The fuzzification can beperformed by either with the help of domain experts ordirectly from the available numerical data. These fuzzydomain values are then processed by inference enginewhich is composed of composition, implication andaggregation processes. The method of processing theinputs is supplied by the knowledge base and rule basemodule as it contains the knowledge of the applicationdomain and the procedural knowledge. Finally, theprocessed output of inference engine is transformed fromfuzzy domain to crisp domain by defuzzification module.One of the biggest challenges in the field of modelingfuzzy rule based systems is the designing of rule base as itis characterized by a set of IF
–
THEN linguistic rules. Thisrule base can be defined either by an expert or can beextracted from numerical data using any computerizedtechniques as mentioned in section I. A rule in fuzzydomain can be represented by equation (2):
Rule: IF antecedent……THEN consequent…….
(2)The antecedent part provides the input variableconditions using IF statements and consequent providesthe output using THEN statements. For example, if X andY are the input and output universes of discourse of a
fuzzy system with a rule base of size ‗N‘, then the rule
will be of the form as shown by equation (3):Rule i
th
: IF x is A
i
THEN y is B
i
(3)Where, x and y represent input and output fuzzylinguistic variables respectively, and A
i
Є X and B
i
Є Y(1≤ i ≤N) are fuzzy sets representing linguistic values of x
and y [5].In Mamdani type systems the consequent is representedusing fuzzy sets while in Sugeno type systems, it is afuzzy singleton. Also in TSK type systems, it is a functionof inputs [23].III.
P
ROPOSED
A
PPROACH
We first broke the system identification problem intothree sub
–
problems and solved these one by one asfollows:1.
Classify all the relevant input and output domainsinto various membership functions using modifiedFCM method [26].2.
Apply Wang and Mendel
algorithm [6] for creatinga fuzzy rule base, evolved as a combination of rulesgenerated from numerical examples and linguisticrules supplied by human experts.3.
Keep the number of rules to bare minimum. Weused a rule reduction technique as proposed in [32],[33] to keep the rule base as compact as possible.The backbone of this approach is the Wang and Mendel
algorithm [6] which has proved to be very effective.Suppose the given set of desired input
–
output data pairsis:
,.......;,,;,
)2()2(
2)2(1)1()1(
2)1(1
y x x y x x
(4)Here x
1
, x
2
are inputs and y is the output. The problemformulation consists of generating fuzzy rules and to usethese rules to determine a mapping from inputs (x
1
, x
2
) tooutput (y).The following steps present our integrated approach:
Step 1: Divide the input output spaces into fuzzyregions:
We divide input spaces into desired number of membership functions using modified FCM [26].Assuming that the domain intervals of inputs x
1
, x
2
andoutput y (equation (4)) lies in [x
1
, x
1+
], [x
2
, x
2+
] and[y

, y
+
]. Here, the domain interval means the values for aparticular variable will lie in this interval. Each of theseinput and output, spaces are partitioned into (2N+1)regions. The number N can be different for each of thevariables. E.g. if the value of N = 2, then there will be five
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