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An Integrated Framework for Content Based Image Retrieval

An Integrated Framework for Content Based Image Retrieval

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Published by ijcsis
Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) is an important research area for manipulating large amount of images from the databases. Extraction of invariant features is the basis of CBIR. Color, texture, shape and spatial information have been important image descriptors in content based image retrieval systems. This paper presents a framework for combining all the three features i.e. color, texture and shape and accomplish higher retrieval efficiency using image by dempster shafer theory of evidence (DST). The main aim of evidence theory is to represent and handle uncertain information. An important property of this theory is its ability to merge different data sources in order to improve the quality of the information retrieval. Dempster evidence integrating the color, shape and texture analysis in image retrieval, the accuracy is much higher than using the techniques separately.
Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) is an important research area for manipulating large amount of images from the databases. Extraction of invariant features is the basis of CBIR. Color, texture, shape and spatial information have been important image descriptors in content based image retrieval systems. This paper presents a framework for combining all the three features i.e. color, texture and shape and accomplish higher retrieval efficiency using image by dempster shafer theory of evidence (DST). The main aim of evidence theory is to represent and handle uncertain information. An important property of this theory is its ability to merge different data sources in order to improve the quality of the information retrieval. Dempster evidence integrating the color, shape and texture analysis in image retrieval, the accuracy is much higher than using the techniques separately.

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 6, 2011
An Integrated Framework for Content Based ImageRetrieval
Ritika Hirwane
SOIT, RGPV, Bhopalritikahirwane@gmail.com
Prof. Nishchol Mishra
SOIT, RGPV, Bhopal 
 Abstract
—Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) is an importantresearch area for manipulating large amount of images from thedatabases. Extraction of invariant features is the basis of CBIR.Color, texture, shape and spatial information have beenimportant image descriptors in content based image retrievalsystems. This paper presents a framework for combining all thethree features i.e. color, texture and shape and accomplish higherretrieval efficiency using image by dempster shafer theory of evidence (DST). The main aim of evidence theory is to representand handle uncertain information. An important property of thistheory is its ability to merge different data sources in order toimprove the quality of the information retrieval. Dempsterevidence integrating the color, shape and texture analysis inimage retrieval, the accuracy is much higher than using thetechniques separately
.
 
 Keywords-Belief function, Dempster shafer theory, Evidence theory, Feature extraction, Probabilities
I.
 
I
 NTRODUCTION
The increasing amount of digitally produced imagesrequires new methods for access data. Content based imageretrieval is a technique which is based on visual contents,called features of images, to search images from large scaleimage databases according to users’ requests in the form of aquery image [2].Basically CBIR include the following four  parts in system comprehension that is data collection, databasefeature extraction, search in the database, arrange the all theresult in sorted order and lastly deal with the results of theretrieval.Most early image retrieval systems were based on textdescriptions or visual features of images like color, texture andshape as indices for retrieval [4].Basically text based andcontent based are the two techniques for search and retrievalfrom the image database. The multi-feature approaches haveresulted in improvements in retrieval efficiency, but it is stillnot very acceptable because different features tend to havedifferent degrees of significance for different types of queries.To overcome this problem, considered the use of domainknowledge to guide the combination of suitable features,whereby a knowledge-based query is specified by the user.In this paper, image retrieval methods based on color,shape and texture analysis are investigated. We have designed a prototype model for feature extraction. In section II show themethod for color feature extraction by colour histogram andsection III contain method for texture feature extraction byenergy level algorithm. Furthermore in section IV depict themethod for shape feature edge detection followed by Section Vintegrated method called dempster evidence theory for combining three feature of image [3]. Calculate the similarityvalue between two images and then evaluate the performanceand compare the characteristic of each image retrieval approachin section VI. Finally conclusions are specified in SectionVII.The main problem associated with content based imageretrieval is that how correctly extracting the visual propertiesand matching them from the database.The resolution which is proposed here is extracting primitive feature of a query imageand compares them to those of database images that is shownin figure 1.II.
 
C
OLOR 
F
EATURE
E
XTRACTION
 One of the most important features of image that make possible the recognition of images by humans is color. Color is property that depends on the reflection of light to the eye andthe giving out of that information in the brain .One of the most popular method for color feature extraction is color histogram[11].Histogram of image is a graphical representation same as a bar chart in structure that organizes a group of data points intouser-specified ranges. The histogram condenses a data seriesinto an easily interpreted visual by taking many data points andgrouping them into logical ranges or bins. The method that isused in this paper for extracting the color features of images isglobal color histograms [10].
153http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 6, 2011
ColorExtractorTextureExtractorShapeExtractorColorExtractorTextureExtractorShapeExtractorQueryColor FeatureQueryTexture FeatureQueryShape FeatureDatabaseColor FeatureDatabaseTexture FeatureDatabaseShape FeatureQuery ImageDataBase ImageColor DistanceMeasureTexture DistanceMeasureShape DistanceMeasureSimilarityMeasureImage DisplayDST
 
Figure 1. Prototype Model For CBIR 
III.
 
T
EXTURE
F
EATURE
E
XTRACTION
 In the field of computer science and digital image processing there is no clear meaning of texture feature becauseit is based on texture analysis methods and the featuresextracted from the image [12]. Yet texture can be considered asrepeated patterns of pixels over a spatial domain, of which theaddition of noise to the patterns and their repetition frequenciesresult in textures that can come out to be random andunstructured.There are lots of method has proposed for texture featureextraction. In this paper one of the popular methods calledenergy spectrum method is used for texture extraction. For atexture classification wavelet transform method are usedthrough which the image is decomposed into four sub images,called high-high, high-low, low-high and low-low sub-bands[5].Once energy of each band has calculated apply thesimilarity distance matrix by euclidian method through whichthe most similar images from the extracted result are computedand arrange them in sorted manner.IV.
 
S
HAPE
F
EATURE
E
XTRACTION
 Shape feature of image may be defined as the attributesurface configuration of an object can be outline or contour. It permits an object to be illustrious from its surroundings by itsoutline [13]. Shape representations can be generally alienatedinto two categories, Boundary-based and Region-based. Avariety of method has proposed for boundary and region basedshape representation. [8].The method that is used here for shape feature extractionis canny edge detection [7].In which initially smoothes theimage and finds the image gradient to highlight regions withhigh spatial derivatives. The gradient array is now further reduced by hysteresis. Hysteresis is used to track along the leftover pixels that have not been suppressed. After shapeextraction of image, distance matrix is calculated
.
V.
 
D
EMPSTER 
S
HAFER 
E
VIDENCE
T
HEORY
 Dempster-Shafer Theory is a mathematical theory that isrelated with evidence [14]. For discrete classes’ space, DSTcan be defined in the term of a probability theory .Where each probability is assigned to sets. Traditionally in probabilitytheory, evidence is related with only one possible event whilein Dempster Shafer Theory, evidence are related with multiple possible events or sets of events. Where the evidence issufficient to give assignments of probabilities to single events.DST is based on the three major functions i.e. Basic Belief Assignment function (BBA or m (.)), Belief function (Bel), andthe Plausibility function (Pl) [9]. BBA is based on evidencetheory does like a probability, but defines a mapping of the power set between the interval between 0 and 1. Where theBasic Belief Assignment function of the empty set is 0 and thesummation of the Basic Belief Assignment function of all thesubsets of the power set is 1. In order to find out the degree of confidence for each proposition A of 2
Θ
, it is possible toassociate an elementary mass function m (A)
 
which indicatesall confidence that one can have in this proposition. Thequantity m (A) is interpreted similar to the belief strictly placedon A
.
This quantity differs from a probability by the totality of the belief is distributed not only on the simple classes but alsoon the composed classes. The BBA can be shown by theequations (1).m(X)
[0,1]m(
Φ
)=0 (1)For any classification problem, number of classes candefined. Let suppose a set of 
Θ
={c
1
, c
2
, c
3
, … }, called theframe of discernment. The power set of 
Θ
, contains all possiblesubsets of 
Θ
. Then the power set, P(
Θ
)={ c
1
, c
2
, c
3
, …, { c
1
, c
2
 }, { c
1
, c
3
},… {c
2
, c
3
}, ….., { c
1
, c
2
, c
3
}, ..…. { c
1
, c
2
, c
3
,…}}. Now we finally compute the total belief provided by the body of evidence for a proposition. The belief function, bel(.),allied with the BBA m(.) is a function that assigns a value in [0,1] to every nonempty subset B of 
Θ
It is called “degree of  belief in B” and is defined by equations (2).
()()
 BA
 BelAmB
=
(2)Bel(A) is the total belief committed to A, means the massof A itself plus the mass attached to all subsets of A. Bel(A) isthe total positive effect the body of evidence has on the valueof 
Θ
being in A. Plausibility function pl (Hn) quantifies themaximal degree of belief of the hypothesis Hn.Dempster-Shafer theory has an operation, calledDempster's rule of combination, for the pooling of evidencefrom a variety of sources [1]. This rule is used for aggregationof two independent bodies of evidence defined within the sameframe of discernment into one body of evidence. Let m1 andm2 are two basic belief assignment associated in a frame of discernment
Θ
. The new body of evidence an m (A) on thesame frame
Θ
can be defined as equations (3).(3)
154http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 6, 2011
VI.
 
P
ROPOSED
A
LGORITHM AND
E
XPERIMENT
ESULT
 In this paper Image retrieval is done by dividing theretrieving part into four parts, namely color feature, texturefeature, shape feature and combining factor. Here we consider that all the features are extracted from the images in the imagedatasets. All these images are randomly selected from theWWW and have same resolution. Let suppose the image thatare selected as a query image from the database is 011.bmp thatis show in fig 2.
Figure 2. Query Image
 
 A.
 
Color Feature Extraction & Similarity Measure
By using the histogram method [6], color feature of thequery image and images that are in the database are extracted.After applying the algorithm, Euclidean Distance Metric isused for finding the similarity measure between the queryimage and generated result. Finally we obtained the followingtop 10 results. Snapshot of the generated result shown in afigure 3.Steps for finding the color histogram are:-Step1:-Select the query image from the dataset.Step2:-Chosse the one of a color space from theRGB, HSV color space.Step3:-Find out the quantization of the color space.Step4:-Compute the histograms of the query image anddatabase images.Step5:-Apply the derivation of the histogram distance functionand find out the images from the database which is mostsimilar to the query image.Step6:- Arrange all the generated result in to sorted manner andstore them in to class1 called H1.
Figure 3. Color Feature Extraction
 
 B.
 
Texture Feature Extraction & Similarity Measure
By using the Energy spectrum method, the texture featureof the query image and images that are in the database areextracted and compute similarity matrix by euclidian distancemethod.Finally we obtained the following top 10 results.Snapshot of the generated result shown in a fig 4.Steps for computing the energy value of images are:Step7:-Apply same query for texture feature extraction.Step8.Apply the discrete wavelet transform to query image aswell as image in the database and image decompose to intofour sub images, in low-low, low-high, high-low and high-highsub-bands .Step9.After getting the four sub part finds out the energyspectrum value of the each sub part by using followingequations (4) .
11
(,)/
mnij
 EvXij EEvPQ
= =
==
(4)X(i,j)shows the intensity of pixel on the position (i,j).Where Mand N are the dimensions of the image.Step10. After getting the energy band of the each sub bandsrepeat the step8.Step11.Calculate similarity matrix and find out the imagessimilar to the query image by following function shown inequations (5).
( )
 D x y
i k i
=
=
,21
(5)Step12. Arrange all the generated result in to sorted manner and store them in to class2 called H2.
Figure 4. Texture
 
Feature Extraction
 
C.
 
Shape Feature Extraction & Similarity Measure
By using the canny edge detection method, the shape feature of the query image and images that are in the database areextracted and calculate similarity metrics. Finally we obtainedthe following top 07 results. Snapshot of the generated resultshown in a fig 5.Steps for edge detection are:-Step13.Apply same query for shape feature extraction.Step14.Apply Gaussian filters to each image of database andquery image for smoothing the image.Step15.Compute the Gradient magnitude using approximationsof partial derivatives.Step16.Thin edges can be detected by applying non-maximasuppression to the gradient magnitude.Step17.Detect edges by double threshold.Step18. Apply the similarity measure function and find out theimages from the database which is most similar to the queryimage.Step19. Arrange all the generated result in to sorted manner and store them in to class3 called H3.
155http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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