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Visualization of Fluid Flow Patterns in Horizontal Circular Pipe Ducts

Visualization of Fluid Flow Patterns in Horizontal Circular Pipe Ducts

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Published by ijcsis
This paper developed a visualization model for determination of frictional Head loss in a circular pipe ducts. Head loss is due to friction when the liquid or gases come in contact with wall of the pipe. To determine the loss at each duct, modified Hagen postulates equation was used in visualization. Frame work stages were developed which consists of data generation framework stages, data enrichment framework stages, data rendering framework stages, visualization development stages and output representation framework stages. Based on the model of visualization stages, MATLAB program was used to determine head loss due to pressure drop and represented in tabular form and 2D representation. This model greatly assist the learners and instructors in determine the flow patterns especially the head loss of fluid in a pipe wall by considering different points or ducts, this model serve as a reusable for both learner and instructors by assist in determine the region along the wall of the pipe where the head loss is very great.
This paper developed a visualization model for determination of frictional Head loss in a circular pipe ducts. Head loss is due to friction when the liquid or gases come in contact with wall of the pipe. To determine the loss at each duct, modified Hagen postulates equation was used in visualization. Frame work stages were developed which consists of data generation framework stages, data enrichment framework stages, data rendering framework stages, visualization development stages and output representation framework stages. Based on the model of visualization stages, MATLAB program was used to determine head loss due to pressure drop and represented in tabular form and 2D representation. This model greatly assist the learners and instructors in determine the flow patterns especially the head loss of fluid in a pipe wall by considering different points or ducts, this model serve as a reusable for both learner and instructors by assist in determine the region along the wall of the pipe where the head loss is very great.

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Published by: ijcsis on Jul 07, 2011
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VISUALIZATION OF FLUID FLOW PATTERNS INHORIZONTAL CIRCULAR PIPE DUCTS
Olagunju, Mukaila,Department of Computer Science,Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin, Nigeriaolamukaila@yahoo.comTaiwo, O. A (Ph.D)Department of MathematicsUniversity of Ilorin, Nigeria.Oataiwo2002@yahoo.com
 Abstract 
 — 
This paper developed a visualization model for determination of frictional Head loss in a circular pipe ducts. Headloss is due to friction when the liquid or gases come in contact withwall of the pipe. To determine the loss at each duct, modified Hagen postulates equation was used in visualization. Frame work stageswere developed which consists of data generation framework stages,data enrichment framework stages, data rendering framework stages,visualization development stages and output representationframework stages. Based on the model of visualization stages,MATLAB program was used to determine head loss due to pressuredrop and represented in tabular form and 2D representation. Thismodel greatly assist the learners and instructors in determine theflow patterns especially the head loss of fluid in a pipe wall byconsidering different points or ducts, this model serve as a reusablefor both learner and instructors by assist in determine the regionalong the wall of the pipe where the head loss is very great.
Keywords:
Step Wise Visualization, Patterns, circular, pipe ducts,fluid flow.
Introduction
For centuries, fluid flow researchers have been studying fluidflows in various ways, and today fluid flow is still animportant field of research. The areas in which fluid flow plays a role are numerous. Gaseous flows are studied for thedevelopment of cars, aircraft and spacecrafts, and also for thedesign of machines such as turbines and combustion engines.Liquid flow research is necessary for naval applications, suchas ship design, and is widely used in civil engineering projectssuch as harbor design and coastal protection. In chemicalengineering, knowledge of fluid flow in reactor tanks isimportant; in medicine, the flow in blood vessels is studied. Numerous other examples could be mentioned. Fluid is alwaysflow in pipe.The pipeline and pumping designers are always concern withflow patternsespecially in preventing the losses of fluid inwhen the pressure drop play major roleAs fluid flows inside the pipe, the pressure drop or lossesoccur due to fluid contact with pipe wall and trylead tofrictionloss which also called thehead loss velocity is one othe factors loss in pipe the size of pipe diameter (inside) alsocause frictionloss.There two factors mentionedabout,whichcan only be demonstrated as factors causing head loss or frictionloss function, model, stimulation and visualizationapproach which is theFocus of this work. Visualization is hereby proposed to predetermine the flow trends.Visualization has a lot of definitionwhich depend on itapplication. Visualization according to [1], is the systematicand focus visual display of information in form of tables,diagrams and graphs. Previous authors were concerned withrepresentative and process of information by the brain in their definitions[2] where theytried to distinguish between Visual perception as meaning the image, an object achieved and as itcan be seen as visual imagery, the mental production of anobject in its absence and spatial imagery as represented bytactile meaning. A linkage was established between brainactivities withthe uses of phrase “mental imagery” instead of visual imagery[3].Also [5], visualizationis also describedas internal,mental construct i.e.mental models, thought to be in the mindand use in mental imagery and to solve problems.Visualizationis also describedas the act or process of interpreting in visual terms or putting into visual form[4.Fluid according to[5] is defined asa substancewhich cannot with stand a shear force or stress withoutmoving as can a solid. It was further classified fluids as liquidsor gases. A liquid has intermolecular forces which hold ittogether so that it possesses volume but no definite shape.They also classified fluid by the types of their flow intolaminar and turbulent flow.
Characteristics of Good Visualization.
Before visualization can be categorized as a goodVisualization, it must have these qualities:-1.It serves a clear purpose2Show the data without distorting it.3Cause the viewer to think about the substance of thedata.4Present large quantities of data in smallest space.
Materials and Methods
The material use in this paper is based on data that waregenerated from modify Hagen postulate equation. Themethod used is based on development of mathematicalmodel and visualization by develop taxonomy framework stages.
Taxonomy of Visualization Model (TVM)
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 6, June 2011164http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
Taxonomy according to[7], in his paper title. “A principled of taxonomy of software “ Defined taxonomy as a commonlanguage or terminology that facilitates communication aboutideas or discoveries.“An early step towards understanding any set of phenomenais to develop taxonomy” [9].The importance of taxonomy for visualization includes:To make the thinking way and application goals clear 1.To discover the shortage of visualizationresearch.In this work, in order to illustrate the Taxonomyof Visualization Model (TVM), the frame work stages were developed for visualization process.The frame work stages consist of different stagesand these include:1.Data generation frame work stage.2.Data Enrichment and Enhancement framework stage.3.Visualization mapping frame work stage.4.Rendering frame work stage.5.Display frame work stage.Based on stages of visualization process,different computer aided visualizationexperiment can be develop with themathematical formulations.
Mathematical formulations
This work was developed based on Visualization processmodel and each stage is developed as follow:
Data generation
:- For this work, the model equation to beVisualized shall be based on Hagen’s equationThe derivation is as follows from Equation 1 below and theassumptions before the model include:1.Flow starts from rest2.The flow is taken place inside the boundary wall3.Parameters A and B are constants4. The flow is taking place at a particular temperaturee.g.20
0
cThe Heagen Equation which is equation is given as 
u=pr
2
+log
e
r
+B
 
4k (1)Where:
P = Pressure of pipeu= Velocitye = Various point of eccentricityr = Radius of the pipeA = Parameter constantk= Dynamic viscosityThe Equation (1) above is modified with the followingassumptionsWhen
u= 0, r = e, parameter constant A = 0Then 0
= pe
2
+B
 
4k 
B = -
pe
2
,
where 0 < e < r 
4k (2)
Substitute 2into 1 to get
=
+
U=p (
2
-e
2
)4k 
(3)
3 can be rewrittenasPe
2
(
2
 – e
2
)4k e
2
e
2
for a particularduct. 
(4)
Also the total velocity is given as
1
 pe
2
1
-
1
+
1
 
(5)
Also Reynolds number along the ducts is given as
=
µ
.
2
4k 
1r
2
e
i
2
==
Where= Kinematic viscosityK= Dynamic viscosityD= Diameter of the pipeAnd the total hand loss along the pipe is give asWherehf = head loss 
λ = Frictional loss of the fluid
l = Length of the pipeu = Velocity of the moving object in the pipeg = Acceleration due to gravityd = Diameter of the pipe when the fluid is moving
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 6, June 2011165http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
Table 1: HEAD LOSS ALONG THE WALL OFTHE PIPEOutput at 0
0
cLength of the pipe 4mRadius of the pipe 0.4m
Point of eccentricityVelocityDischargerateHead lost-0.40-0.00-0.00NaN-0.3869.8835.132556.19-0.36136.1868.4549801.80-0.34198.8999.9772736.84-0.32258.02129.6994361.31-0.30313.57157.61114675.20-0.28365.53183.73133678.52-0.26413.91208.05151371.26-0.24458.70230.57167753.44-0.22499.91251.28182825.03-0.20537.54270.20196586.06-0.18571.58287.31209036.51-0.16602.04302.62220176.38-0.14628.92316.13230005.69-0.12652.22327.84238524.42-0.10671.93337.75245732.57-0.08688.05345.85251630.15-0.06700.59352.16256217.16-0.04709.55356.66259493.60-0.02714.93359.36261459.460.00NaNNaNNaN0.02714.93359.36261459.460.04709.55356.66259493.600.06700.59352.16256217.160.08688.05345.85251630.150.10671.93337.75245732.570.12652.22327.84238524.420.14628.92316.13230005.690.16602.04302.62220176.380.18571.58287.31209036.510.20537.54270.20196586.060.22499.91251.28182825.030.24458.70230.57167753.440.26413.91208.05151371.260.28365.53183.73133678.520.30313.57157.61114675.200.32258.02129.6994361.310.34198.8999.9772736.840.36136.1868.4549801.800.3869.8835.1325556.190.40-0.00-0.00NaN
Figure1:Graphical representation of the velocityversus varying points on the radius of 0.4m
-0.4-0.3-0.2-0.100.10.20.30.40200400600800Velocity versus points of eccentricitypoints of eccentricity
  v  e  l  o  c  i  t  y
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 6, June 2011166http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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