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TOTN: Development of A Tourism – Specific Ontology For Information Retrieval In Tamilnadu Tourism

TOTN: Development of A Tourism – Specific Ontology For Information Retrieval In Tamilnadu Tourism

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Published by ijcsis
Tourism is an information business. Electronic tourism is one of the activities that have enjoyed of an important success in the Internet. The constant fast growth in travel related information makes it difficult to find, organize, access and maintain the information required by users. E-tourism is a perfect candidate form Semantic web and the success of Semantic Web depends on ontologies. Ontology, an explicit specification of Conceptualization [1] and provides a description of the domain of interest. This paper focus on creating tourism ontology in order to improve the process of searching for the perfect tourism package according to user context for Tamilnadu tourism.
Tourism is an information business. Electronic tourism is one of the activities that have enjoyed of an important success in the Internet. The constant fast growth in travel related information makes it difficult to find, organize, access and maintain the information required by users. E-tourism is a perfect candidate form Semantic web and the success of Semantic Web depends on ontologies. Ontology, an explicit specification of Conceptualization [1] and provides a description of the domain of interest. This paper focus on creating tourism ontology in order to improve the process of searching for the perfect tourism package according to user context for Tamilnadu tourism.

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TOTN: Development of a tourism
 – 
specific ontologyfor information retreival in Tamilnadu tourism
K.R.Ananthapadmanaban,Research Scholar,Sri Chandrasekarendra SaraswathiViswaMahavidyalaya University,Enathur, Kanchipuram-631 561,Dr.S.K.Srivatsa,Senior Professor,
St.Joseph„s
College of Engg.,Jeppiaar Nagar,Chennai-600 064
 Abstract
 — 
Tourism is an information business. Electronic tourismis one of the activities that have enjoyed of an important successin the Internet. The constant fast growth in travel relatedinformation makes it difficult to find, organize, access andmaintain the information required by users. E-tourism is aperfect candidate form Semantic web and the success of SemanticWeb depends on ontologies. Ontology, an explicit specification of Conceptualization [1] and provides a description of the domain of interest. This paper focus on creating tourism ontology in orderto improve the process of searching for the perfect tourismpackage according to user context for Tamilnadu tourism.
 Keywords-component; Ontologies, semantic web, Protégé tool,OWL
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
The study of E-Commerce in the tourism industry has
emerged as a „frontier area‟ for information technology [2].Tourism has become the world‟
s largest trade and its expansionshows a constant year-to-
year raise.”Competitive benefit is no
longer ordinary, but increasingly driven by science,information technology and innovation [3]. The internet isalready the major source for travelers to plan their trip. Thoughthe web is rich of content the users find difficult on retrievingdata from the large set, which consumes more human effort.Current web has been designed for direct human processing,
 but the next generation “semantic web “aims at machin
eprocess able information [4]. Recent advances in the semanticweb technologies offer means for organization to exchangeknowledge in meaningful way [5]. The application that offersthese new online solutions is based on ontology. Ontology andontology based information retrieval have the potential tosignificantly improve the process of searching on the WorldWide Web. This paper proposes ontology creation for tourismin Tamilnadu based on the user profile and user interest tosearch for perfect destination for tourist.II.
 
S
EMANTIC WEB LAYER
 Ontology is an explicit formal specification of shared
conceptualization [6] [7]. “Conceptualization means an abstract
simplified view of the World. The World actually refers tosome phenomenon, topic or subject area in the World.
“Explicit” means that the type of concepts and the constraints
on using the concept are explicitly defined in the data structureof ontology
. “Formal” indicates that the
ontology should be
machine interpretable. “Specification” means a declarativ
e
representation of Knowledge. “Shared” implies that
ontology isnot supposed to represent the subjective knowledge of someindividual, but it captures consensual knowledge accepted by agroup or a community. In short ontology is the manifestation of shared understanding of a domain that acquired a consensus,and such consensus can facilitate effective communications.This in turn leads to other benefits such as interoperability,reuse and sharing [8] [9]. Semantic web is about making theweb more understandable by computer [10]. Hence, ontologiesform the backbone of semantic web [11] as a method forknowledge representation and sharing on the web. Thesemantic web architecture lists the underlying machineunderstandable languages for knowledge representation. XML(Extensible Markup Language), RDF (Resource DescriptionFramework) and OWL (Web Ontology Language) are thoselanguages and OWL facilitates greater machine interpretabilityof web content than of XML and RDF.OWL is a set of XML elements and attributes, with well-defined meaning, that are used to define terms and theirrelationships (e.g. Class, equivalent property, intersection Of,Union Of, etc.,). Reasoning tasks like verification of ontologyconsistency, computing inferences and realization can be easilyexecuted with OWL representation.III.
 
L
ITERATURE
S
URVEY
 Presentation of tourist destinations on the web makes ahuge amount of data. As quality of available information islarge, it is difficult for the tourist to find his desired destination.Ontology has the potential to improve the process of searchingappropriate destination according to user preference. Here weare going to analyze various papers on tourism ontologies.Eleni Tomai, Stavros Michael and Poulicos Prastacosexplored how the use of ontologies in a web-basedenvironment can be used for tourism applications. Theirmethodology consist of building two separate ontologies, onefor the user profile and another one concerning tourisminformation and data in order to assist visitors of an area to plantheir visit. The user profile ontology is elicited by userresponses by means of a form (interface) where user can fill thearea of interest and tourism ontology developed by the serviceprovider. In this paper, reference point for all users is taken tobe the centre of city Heraklion. Concepts such as time neededto visit interested destinations, time needed to visit interesteddestinations from the point of reference, average time to see the
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 6, June 2011188http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
place and comeback, accessibility of the spot, entrance fees if any and opening hours of the spot if applicable, are othercrucial parameters 12].Robert Barta, Christina Feilmayr, Christoph Grun andHannes Werthner explored user preferences which according tothem, it is fundamental to personalise information about touristobjects i.e. user preferences can be aggregated to set of touristtypes. In this paper, concepts like opening hours of point of interest, opening days of point of interest, time pattern to modelrecurring events are included [13].Waralak V.Siricharoen discusses some ontological trendsthat support the growing domain of online tourism. Conceptslike date and time of travel, contact data, tickets and locationsare explored. His focus is on description of accommodation,infrastructure i.e. many prefer to stay close to anaccommodation that is close as possible to an infrastructure[14].Weiwanag Et al. explored how the use of ontologies canassist tourist plan their trip in Web-based environment. Itconsist of two Ontologies on for user profile and the otherconcerning about tourism information and data in order toassist visitors of an area to plan their visit, Bayesian network isused to estimate the travelers preferred activities[15].Danica Damljanovic and Vladan Devedzic illustrated howthe semantic web technologies combined with traditional e-tourism application concepts such as user interest, activities,age group are used and concepts like vacation packages, types
of vacation, traveler‟s types, accommodation, food service,
transportation service and room type in hotel are the validparameters [16].Ou, S., Pekar, V., Orasan, C., Spurk, C., Negri, M exploredon spatial temporal entities which have both temporal andspatial context. It comprised activities, which might beperformed at a certain destination and events which refer to anoccurrences with specific content at a specific location with acertain time period [17]. Reservations, booking or any kind of tickets are temporal entities as they are valid for certain periodof time.On observations, challenges remain for users in reusingavailable ontologies information. Lack of standards is veryvital issue, and parameters vary from one ontology to another.In e-tourism different ontologies have been developed fordifferent areas and they might not meet the needs to regionaldestination for any specific area, they are mostly locationbased. In this paper, we are going to construct tourismontology for Indian scenario especially with parameters forTamilnadu tourism to assist visitors to plan their tripaccurately.IV.
 
C
REATING A TOURSIM ONTOLOGY
 Creating ontology requires the following steps according toNoy and McGuiness [18]1.
 
Determining the scope of a domain(Area of interest)2.
 
Arranging classes and the class hierarchy(Hierarchyclasses)3.
 
Defining the properties and data values for theclasses(Relations and Characteristics)4.
 
Creating instances of the classesFigure 1 shows the generic procedure for ontology building.Fig.1. Generic Procedure of Ontology Building
 A.
 
Ontology creation basics
Tourism ontology can be built to answer four types of questions that can be asked when developing the e-tourismpackage. These questions involve the predicates What, Where,When and How [19].1.
 
What [Activities]: What can a tourist do while staying?2.
 
Where [Place]: Where are the interesting places locatedto see and visit?3.
 
When [Season]: When can the tourist visit a particularplace?4.
 
How [Transportation]: How can the tourists gets to thedestination to see or do an activity?The concepts What, Where, When and How can berepresented as classes. The class What refers to activitiesthat a tourist does while staying such as trekking, watergames, billiard, cycling etc. The class Where representsplaces to see and visit. The class When relates to seasonthat the tourist can visit the particular place or it can berelated to time when that tourist spot is open e.g. openingtime of Zoological park or opening days. And the classHow shows how tourist gets to its destination i.e. preferablemode of transportation e.g. Air, Bus, Rail or Taxi.A class hierarchy is defined by stating that a class is asubclass of another. The class Thing is the class that
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 6, June 2011189http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
represents the set containing all individuals because of this;all classes are subclass of Thing. The class Trekking,Cycling, Swimming are subclasses of Activity. It is alsopossible to assert that two classes are disjoint from eachother. For example class Budget Hotel is disjoint with theclass Star Hotel. This ensures that an individual which hasbeen asserted to be a member of one of the classes in thegroup cannot be a member of any other classes in thegroup, i.e. it would not make sense for an individual to beBudget Hotel and a Star Hotel. There are two main types of properties in OWL. The first one, called the objectproperty, can be used to relate two individuals e.g.Accommodation [hasactivity Swimming]. The second isreferred as data type property which related an individual toXML schema data type value or an RDF literal. Example:Visitors [canspend 1500].In OWL properties, may have a domain and rangespecified. Properties link individuals from the domain toindividuals from range. For example in our tourismontology if the object property is [isinterested] then thedomain will be tourister and range will be WildlifeSanctuary. Data type properties allow instances to have datavalues in specific data types. The OWL uses the data types
 borrowed from XML Schema such as “xsd:string”,„xsd:int”and“xsd:
b
oolean”. Properties can have several
characteristics in representing the relation between classes.Properties can be symmetry, if the pair (X, Y) is an instanceof the symmetric property P then the pair(Y, X) is also aninstance of P. For example, the cousin relationship or friendrelationship can be asserted to be a symmetric property.Properties may be stated to be transitive. If the pair of (X,Y) is an instance of transitive property P and the pair(Y, Z)is an instance of P. For example the ancestor relationshipcan be asserted to be a transitive property. Properties canstate to have unique value using functional property whoseminimum cardinality is zero and maximum cardinality isone. For example [hasAge] can be stated to be a functionalproperty. Properties also have restrictions so that aninstance can satisfy a certain condition; some of restrictionsare all values from, some values from, hasvaluemincardinality, maxcardinality and cardinality. CardinalityRestrictions-Meaning: The property must have atleast/almost/exactly X values. Example: A Familydestination is a destination that has at least oneAccommodation and at least 2 Activities.allValues From Restrictions-Meaning: All values of theproperty must be of a certain type Example: Hiking is asport that is only possible in National Parks.Some Values from Restrictions
 – 
Meaning: At least onevalue of the property must be of the property must be of acertain type example: A National Park is an urban area thathas at least one Campground and offers at least one Hikingopportunity.hasValueRestrictions-Meaning: At least one of the valuesof the property is a certain value. Example: A part of Coimbatore is a destination where one of the values of theispartof property Coimbatore.
 B.
 
Tourism Ontology for Tamilnadu - TOTN 
The ontology has been developed using protégé 4.1 betaversion for travel and tourism domain. Protégé[20] is anopen source tool which is used to construct knowledgebased application using ontology. It provides a platform forcreating ontology and form the ontology knowledge base.The tool displays and edits ontology in graphical mode. Italso helps in building OWL-DL ontology and usingDescription Logic Reasoner to check the consistency of theontology and automatically compute the ontology classhierarchy.The Tourism Ontology for Tamilnadu (TOTN) is built toconceptualize TouristSpots, Accommodation, andActivities during the travel. While creating the ontology,certain parameters are being analyzed and our objective isto answer the following questions initially and we also look at certain aspects which come across while creatingontology and we are trying to find solutions for the same.
1)
 
What kind of tourist spots can be assigned to a userbased on user interest and preferences?
2)
 
How can the tourist object such as touristspots,accommodation, activities and transportation aremapped for the tourist.
3)
 
While on tour, which accommodation can touristhave, based on the constraints accomodation expense.The TOTN ontology contains five important classes, eachclass has subclasses. Fig.2 shows the representation of classes relationship in the travel ontology.Fig.2. Tourism OntologyThe Concepts such as accessibility, entrance_fees,opening_days, opening_hours, time_needed are also added.The concept Wellness is added for the users who will beinterested in Ayurvedic treatment or Yoga. The details of fitness centres are added for those who go for Gym regularly.The relation among concepts were expressed by the propertiesto model the ontology.The figure 3 below shows the coreconcepts of tourism ontology and table 1 shows the
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 6, June 2011190http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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